A new study has found women who looked cheerful are judged as having less leadership willingness, while those proud ones are positively associated with leadership qualities.
Economic researchers from TUM decided to investigate the mechanisms behind the selection and assessment of leaders in business and academia and ways to challenge stereotypes.
In a number of studies, researchers presented a variety of scenarios with (potential) leaders and their employees to randomly selected individuals. They then asked the study participants about their perceptions and expectations.
In another scenario, managers varied the extent of decision-making power accompanying tasks delegated to employees. From the viewpoint of the employees, all study participants preferred leaders who allowed a greater degree of freedom. Unlike the male study participants, however, the women made a distinction according to the bosses' gender: Female managers who did not delegate decision-making power were viewed less favorably than male bosses who behaved the same way.
"There is still the belief that men in leadership positions show more assertiveness towards their staff," comments Professor Welpe. "The surprising thing is that some female stereotypes are more reinforced in the minds of women themselves - for example their tendency to accept a dominant leadership style in men."
The researchers have also discovered possible ways for women to challenge the stereotypes:
Previous studies have shown that individuals who are seen as willing to lead do in fact have a greater chance of being appointed to a leadership position. This puts women at a disadvantage because they are, on average, perceived as being less interested in management roles.
The TUM researchers wanted to find out how emotions play a role in this perception. The study participants saw scenarios in which men and women were either cheerful or proud of their personal performance, or else showing no emotion at all.
Those who came across as proud were assessed as having greater leadership willingness.
This effect was significantly more pronounced in the case of the women in the study.
"Women who looked cheerful were judged to less willing to lead. Pride, on the other hand, is positively associated with leadership qualities," said Professor Isabell Welpe of TUM's Chair for Strategy and Organization.
The researchers hope to develop training programs based on their findings. These will be aimed at helping companies and scientific organizations assess the potential and performance of men and women beyond the limitations of stereotypes.