Synthetic drug use may put teenagers at greater risk of experiencing depressive symptoms, say researchers.
A five year study conducted with thousands of local teenagers by University of Montreal researchers has found that those who used speed (meth/ampthetamine) or ecstasy (MDMA) at fifteen or sixteen years of age were significantly more likely to suffer elevated depressive symptoms the following year.
"Our findings are consistent with other human and animal studies that suggest long-term negative influences of synthetic drug use," said co-author Frederic N. Briere of the School Environment Research Group at the University of Montreal.
"Our results reveal that recreational MDMA and meth/amphetamine use places typically developing secondary school students at greater risk of experiencing depressive symptoms," Briere stated.
Ecstasy and speed-using grade ten students were respectively 1.7 and 1.6 times more likely to be depressed by the time they reached grade eleven.
The researchers worked with data provided by 3,880 students enrolled at schools in disadvantaged areas of Quebec. The participants were asked a series of questions that covered their drug use - what they had used in the past year or ever in their life - and their home life.
Depressive symptoms were established by using a standard epidemiological evaluation tool. 310 respondents reported using MDMA and 451 used meth/amphetamines. 584 of all respondents were identified as having elevated depressive symptoms.
The range of questions that the researchers asked enabled them to adjust their statistics to take into account other factors likely to affect the psychological state of the student, such as whether there was any conflict between the parents and the participant.
"This study takes into account many more influencing factors than other research that has been undertaken regarding the association between drugs and depression in teenagers," Briere said.
"However, it does have its limitations, in particular the fact that we cannot entirely rule out the effects of drug combinations and that we do not know the exact contents of MDMA and meth/amphetamine pills," he noted.
The study's authors would like to do further research into how drug combinations affect a person's likelihood to suffer depression and they are keen to learn more about the differences between adults and adolescents in this area.