Silver is as proficient as a principal chemotherapy drug in treating cancer and may possibly even have fewer side effects, reveals a new study.
Results from the study at the University of Leeds, show that particular silver compounds are as toxic to cancer cells as the platinum-based drug Cisplatin, which is widely used to treat a range of cancers.
But the crucial difference is that silver is thought to be much less toxic to healthy human cells, and in some cases, can be beneficial.
Nausea and vomiting, kidney damage and an increased risk of infection are common side effects of Cisplatin, which is used to treat cancer of the lungs, breast, bladder, testicles, head and neck, ovaries and lymph nodes.
"As many are unfortunately aware, chemotherapy can be a very gruelling experience for the patient. Finding effective, yet non-toxic drugs is an ongoing problem, but these preliminary results are an important step in solving it," Dr Charlotte Willans who is leading the study said.
"Our research has looked at the structure which surrounds a central silver atom. This 'shrubbery' is what determines how reactive it is and what it will interact with. Our research has used different types of these ligands to see which is the most effective against cancer cells," Dr Willans added.
The research, still the first phase of drug development, involved exposing breast and colon cancer cells with different silver-based chemicals for six day periods.
It has been shown that ligands which are co-ordinately bonded to the central silver atom through two sites are more effective than those coordinated through only one site.
This may be due to the release of silver being much slower and make these compounds more effective over a longer period of time.
A major barrier to the continued development of these compounds is a lack of understanding of how they work. Over the next 12 months, research will focus on investigating how the compounds damage cancerous cells and what effects they have on healthy cells.
This will establish whether these silver complexes are in fact less toxic to ordinary human tissue, and will help to design and develop the next-generation of chemotherapy drugs.
The study has been published in Dalton Transactions.