A new study has found that short-term infection with intestinal worms may help prevent the development of type 1 diabetes (TID).
The incidence of TID-a form of the disease in which the body's own immune cells attack the insulin-producing islet cells of the pancreas-is relatively low in developing countries.
One explanation for this phenomenon is the prevalence of chronic intestinal worm infections, which dampen the self-aggressive T cells that cause diabetes and other autoimmune diseases.
William Gause and his colleagues at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, including Pankaj Mishra and David Bleich, now shows that a two-week infection with the intestinal worm H. polygyrus (cured using oral drugs) prompted T cells to produce the cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, which acted independently to provide lasting protection against TID in mice.
A similar approach using eggs from another parasitic worm, Trichuris suis, is currently being tested in clinical trials in patients with Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis.
The studies presented in this paper now provide potential mechanisms explaining the potency of parasite-induced control of inflammatory diseases.
The study has been published in the journal Mucosal Immunology.