The first high-quality sequencing of a Neanderthal genome has been completed by German researchers, who are making it freely available online for other scientists to study.
The genome produced from remains of a toe bone found in a Siberian cave is far more detailed than a previous "draft" Neanderthal genome sequenced three years ago by the same team at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
"This allows even the small differences between the copies of genes that this Neanderthal individual inherited from its mother and father to be distinguished," the institute said in a statement.
"We will gain insights into many aspects of the history of both Neanderthals and Denisovans and refine our knowledge about the genetic changes that occurred in the genomes of modern humans after they parted ways with the ancestors of Neanderthals and Denisovans," Paabo said.
The genome sequence is being made freely available so scientists elsewhere can conduct research on it, he said.