China's family planning policy, introduced in the late 1970s, allows urban dwellers one child to control the nation's fast-growing population, which is now at 1.3 billion.
A concession is that couples who were both single children themselves are allowed to have a second child.
However a recent survey conducted by the Beijing Administrative Institute showed 52 percent did not want two children, the China Daily reported.
The figure includes more than a quarter of respondents who did not wany any offspring, with many citing the financial burden of bringing up a child.
Just 24 percent said they would like to have two children, while the rest gave a variety of responses.
The survey was carried out among 1,100 people aged 20-34 who were born into one-child families.
The poll also found that people with higher educational qualifications have a stronger desire for more children because they are financially more secure.
Some local governments have relaxed the "one child" law to allow people to have more children as some cities have experienced negative population growth for years due to the rule.
However, ruthless enforcement of the policy in other areas -- especially in the countryside -- has also triggered widespread opposition.
Riots have broken out against forced abortions and other measures, such as heavy fines, the destruction of homes and confiscation of property.