Several compounds are found in mangoes that have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties. These compounds include vitamin C and beta carotene, as well as several polyphenolic compounds including gallic acid and their larger polymers gallotannins, that have been linked to anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities in previous in vitro and in vivo studies.
The absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivatives have not previously been investigated in humans. In this human pilot trial published in the journal of Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
, 11 healthy volunteers between the ages of 21 and 38 years old consumed 400g/day of mango-pulp for 10 days, with blood and urine samples taken on days one and 10 of the study following mango consumption. Participants refrained from consuming dietary supplements and foods which could be sources of gallic acid such as berries, grapes, and tea for one week prior to the beginning of the study and during the 10 days of mango consumption.
‘The presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol metabolites in human urine after the consumption 400g of mango indicates the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivative.’
"In order to demine if these polyphenolic compounds have potential benefits to human health at realistic food consumption amounts, it was first necessary to study how these compounds are metabolized in the body," said lead researcher Susanne Mertens-Talcott, Ph.D. of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Texas A&M University.
Seven metabolites of gallic acid were identified in the urine of healthy volunteers, and of those two microbial metabolites were found to be significantly more excreted following 10 days of mango consumption. The presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol metabolites in human urine after the consumption 400g of mango indicates the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of mango galloyl derivative and confirms the bioavailability of these mango-derived metabolites.
"The results of this research show that mango has the potential to enhance the diet as a source of gallic acid and gallotannins which may possess anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties," said Dr. Mertens-Talcott.