About My Health Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

New TCR Therapy Could Help Prevent Leukemia Relapses

by Rishika Gupta on October 30, 2017 at 6:37 PM
Font : A-A+

 New TCR Therapy Could Help Prevent Leukemia Relapses

T cells can be genetically engineered to treat and prevent relapses in leukemia patients effectively found a new study published in Blood journal. A research team at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington carried out the primary study.

The findings provide the basis for launching a first-in-human clinical trial of this new immunotherapy, which relies on engineered T-cell receptors, or TCRs.

Advertisement


This immunotherapy represents a different method of genetic engineering than the CAR T-cell therapies that were recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Relapse occurs in about one-third of patients with acute leukemia who undergo stem cell transplantation to rebuild cancer-free blood cells, and more than 90 percent of these patients die after an average survival of about four months.
Advertisement

"New therapies are desperately needed to prevent and treat the relapse of leukemia in patients who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation," said pediatric oncologist Dr. Marie Bleakley, the paper's senior author, who is a member of Fred Hutch's Clinical Research Division.

T cells, a linchpin of the immune system, have a variety of molecules on their surface, known as receptors that recognize cells that are foreign or diseased and kill them.

To boost the immune system's ability to recognize and attack these "invaders," researchers may transfer genes for a tumor-specific T-cell receptor into the T cells collected from a patient's transplant donor.

In this work, Bleakley and colleagues exploited a specific "minor histocompatibility antigen," or minor H antigen, found on the surface of leukemia cells in some patients.

Using this group of antigens as targets are being re-examined now that the basic principles of cancer immunotherapy are better understood and potent T-cell immunotherapy is a clinical reality.

Because these antigens are expressed predominantly on blood-forming cells, targeting them could provide a potent and selective anti-leukemia treatment with little risk to other cells.

TCR therapy differs from CAR T-cell therapy in that the latter involves creating receptors that are not found in nature. The former occurs naturally in humans, though the receptors we have can vary.

While CAR T-cell therapies are known to be effective in treating B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or ALL, it has not yet been successful in Acute Myeloid Leukemia or T-cell ALL.

Bleakley's team broke new ground by identifying T-cell receptors that were especially potent in their targeting of a minor H antigen found on the surface of leukemia cells.

Using these genetic blueprints, they then were able to extract these receptors from select blood samples provided by donors. Next, they inserted these receptors into T cells from donors for patients who could perhaps benefit from having such "supercharged" T cells to seek and destroy cancer cells with the targeted antigen.

Although no patients have yet received these TCRs, the engineered T cells efficiently and specifically killed target cells in laboratory tests.

"T-cell receptors isolated from minor H antigen-specific T cells represent an untapped resource for developing targeted T-cell immunotherapy to manage leukemia relapse," Bleakley said, adding that the construct used in this study could serve as a prototype for others targeting similar antigens.

Her research team has established a new technique to discover antigens that may be exploited as targets and has identified and characterized five novel minor H antigens.

Bleakley is aiming to launch a Phase 1 clinical trial in December 2017. If results from the lab are borne out in clinical trials, this form of adoptive T-cell therapy could join a growing immune-based arsenal.

Fred Hutch researchers and clinicians are pioneers in the development of a variety of T-cell therapies for blood-related and other cancers.

Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Advertisement
News Category
What's New on Medindia
Cochlear Implants may Consequently Drive Hearing Loss
E-cigarettes Use Linked to Erectile Dysfunction
Memory Loss - Can it be Recovered?
View all

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
Leukemia Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Reiki and Pranic Healing Multiple Myeloma Bone Marrow Transplantation Hairy Cell Leukemia 

Recommended Reading
Tissue-resident and Circulating Memory T Cells Cooperate in Anti-tumor Immunity
The mechanism of how different subtypes of essential immune-response cells called CD8+ T ......
Nanodiscs Containing Tumor Antigens Stimulate Immune System to Kill Cancer Cells
Nanodiscs containing tumor antigens stimulate the immune system to recognize cancer cells and ......
T Cells Have an Unconventional STING Response
Scientists have shown that T cells have an "unconventional" STING response, which manifests as ......
Norovirus Escapes Immune System by Hiding Out in Rare Gut Cell
Noroviruses can escape the immune system by hiding out in rare type of cell in the lining of the ......
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the cancer of white blood cells characterized by excess lympho...
Acute Myeloid Leukemia
Acute myeloid Leukemia, more popularly known by its abbreviated form AML, is a fast- evolving leukem...
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this stem cell from bone marrow are in...
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia
Chronic myeloid Leukemia is one of the most common types of blood cancer. It is characterized by ex...
Hairy Cell Leukemia
Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a type of leukemia where there are increased numbers of abnormal B-lymp...
Leukemia
Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general information about Leukemia...
Multiple Myeloma
Multiple Myeloma caught public attention when model turned actress Lisa Ray, who worked in Deepa Meh...

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2021

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use