T cell dysfunction (also called exhaustion) arises in chronic disease states such as cancer and chronic viral infections. New treatments that aim to reverse T cell dysfunction, such as checkpoint inhibitors, have been very effective, but only for certain patients and certain tumor types.
A distinct gene module for T cell dysfunction distinct from activation in tumor-infiltrating T cells has been identified by investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital. This finding has paved the way for the development of new precision therapeutics.
To better understand the molecular underpinnings of T cell dysfunction, the research team analyzed tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), using single-cell as well as cell-population analysis techniques. They identified several pathways as well as a transcription factor, Gata-3, that contribute to T cell dysfunction, and used CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to further demonstrate the role of Gata-3 in T cell dysfunction.
This work represents the combined efforts of two BWH laboratories: the laboratory of Anderson, who is also the co-chair of BWH's Infectious and Immunologic Disease Center at the Brigham Research Institute, and the laboratory of Vijay K. Kuchroo, director of Evergrande Center for Immunologic Diseases. This work was completed in collaboration with the laboratory of Aviv Regev, at the Broad Institute.