Difficulties with memory and thinking ability more likely to affect recovery in rehabilitation facilities, reports a new study. The findings of the study are published in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society.
After a hospital stay, many older adults will be discharged to a skilled nursing facility to recover. The goal of this type of short-term nursing care is to help patients regain their ability to function and perform their daily activities to the best of their ability, so they can return home, if possible.
Cognitive impairment is when you have difficulties with memory and your ability to think and make decisions. Some studies have examined how cognitive impairment can affect recovery for nursing home residents. But recently, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) added new ways to measure patients' abilities to perform their daily routines in nursing facilities and other after-care settings.
Participants in the study were Medicare Part A beneficiaries who stayed in a skilled care facility between January 1 and June 30, 2017, but who had not stayed in one in 2016. The study included 246,395 skilled nursing home stays.
The researchers used these measures of self-care and mobility:
- Oral hygiene
- Ability to use/get to the toilet
- Moving from a sitting to lying position
- Moving from a lying to sitting position
- Moving from a sitting to standing position
- Ability to move from chair or bed to chair
These items were scored by health professionals in nursing homes when residents were admitted and discharged. They used a scale to measure residents' mobility. The scale ranged from 1 (Dependent: Helper does all of the efforts) to 6 (Independent: Resident completes the activity by themselves with no assistance from a helper).
The average length of stay in the nursing facilities was 24 days, and most residents were between 65 and 84 years old. Sixty-eight percent of residents had no cognitive impairment when they were admitted to the nursing facility, 18.3 percent had mild impairment, 11.8 percent had moderate impairment, and 1.7 percent had severe impairment.
About 20 percent of the participants had an active diagnosis of a fracture, 30 percent had diabetes, and 27 percent had psychiatric mood disorders. Almost half the participants experienced some urinary incontinence, and half had fallen in the last six months.
The research team learned that the participants' cognitive status significantly affected their scores. Residents with severe cognitive impairment scored lower than those who were cognitively intact. When they were discharged, residents with severe cognitive impairment scored about one point higher than when they were admitted. This is compared to residents who had no cognitive problems, who scored about two points higher when they were discharged.
Nearly all of the residents who had no cognitive difficulties at admission improved their ability to get around. In contrast, 87 percent of those with severe cognitive impairments improved.
The research team concluded that residents with more severe cognitive problems didn't improve as much in terms of self-care and mobility as did residents who were cognitively intact when they were admitted. The researchers thus suggested that residents with cognitive impairment may need additional support and more intense rehabilitation to make the same gains as residents who are cognitively intact.