The detailed molecular structure of the brain's "pleasure molecules" has been revealed by scientists. This finding could lead to drugs for treating a range of illnesses from depression to addiction.
Researchers have deciphered the atomic three-dimensional structure of the brain's opiod receptors, the protein molecules that are intimately involved in the control of pain and feelings of wellbeing, as well as being the target of the opiod drugs such as morphine, codeine and heroin.
They said that unravelling of the structure of the opiod receptors on such a minutely detailed level would accelerate the development of new drugs that can alleviate anxiety and depression as well as novel treatments for chronic pain and addiction, the Independent reported.
There are four types of opiod receptor, which work together in ways that are not completely understood.
Two of them have been deciphered by two teams of researchers who published their work in the journal Nature.
Professor Roth's group worked on the "kappa" opiod receptor which is known to respond to one of the most powerful natural hallucinogenic drugs, salvinorin A, which is derived from the plant Salvia divinorum, commonly known as "magic mint".
According to the US National Institute on Drug Abuse there has been a surge in the use of salvia among young Americans, with more than one in 20 young adults saying they have experimented with magic mint in the past year.
The second opiod receptor analysed in detail is the "mu" opiod, which is involved in the control of pleasure and pain-relief by binding to the body's endorphin neurotransmitters.
The same receptor is targeted by synthetic opiod drugs such as morphine, codeine and heroin - as well as opium.
While the kappa opiod receptor appears to elevate a person's mood, the mu receptor can depress mood and produce "dissociative psychedelic experiences", which is how magic mint produces its effect, the scientists said.
Studies on laboratory animals have indicated the drugs that can block the action of the kappa opiod receptors could be used to treat addiction, provide pain-relief and reduce the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, Professor Roth said.
Even the psychedelic effect associated with the activation of the kappa receptor protein could be useful in providing fresh insights into human perception and consciousness, he added.