Sunshine is indeed the key to a long and healthy life, for a new study has found that vitamin D deficiency can harm cardiovascular health, and also result in death due to heart failure.
Vitamin D deficiency results in part from reduced exposure to sunlight, which is common during cold weather months when days are shorter and more time is spent indoors.
"Chronic vitamin D deficiency may be a culprit in heart disease, high blood pressure and metabolic syndrome," said Sue Penckofer, PhD, RN, study author and professor, Marcella Niehoff School of Nursing, Loyola University Chicago.
The research team led by Penckofer suggest that diet alone is not sufficient to manage vitamin D levels.
Treatment options to correct the deficiency, such as vitamin D2 or D3, may decrease the risk of severe disease or death from cardiovascular disorders.
"Most physicians do not routinely test for vitamin D deficiency," said Penckofer.
"However, most experts would agree that adults at risk for heart disease and others who experience fatigue joint pain or depression should have their vitamin D levels measured," she added.