Protein IRF1 helps identify how liver cells have an innate resistance to RNA viral infections like hepatitis A, dengue and Zika, said researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) and Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science (TMIMS). When present in liver cells, this IRF1 protein regulates RARRES3, an enzyme that when expressed in cells where hepatitis A virus is trying to set up shop, will attack the virus. These results were published in Nature Microbiology. "We discovered that IRF1 is a master regulator of intrinsic resistance to viruses in liver cells," said Stanley M. Lemon, M.D., the study's co-author and a professor of medicine, microbiology and immunology in the UNC School of Medicine. "If present in liver cells, IRF-1 ensures that RARRES-3, an enzyme that acts on lipids, makes the cell hostile or restrictive to hepatitis A infection." In 2019 alone, there have been several outbreaks of hepatitis A throughout the United States, including Florida, Ohio and California. Hepatitis A infection occurs through consuming contaminated food and water, sex, and injection drug use. The infection can be fatal. There is a very effective and safe two-shot vaccine for hepatitis A virus. However, people who have not been immunized remain at risk for infection. ‘New model shows how liver cells respond to RNA viruses. ’ "We also found that while expressing RARRES3 is protective against hepatitis A infection, it does not help liver cells resist an attack from other RNA viruses like dengue," said Daisuke Yamane, D.V.M., Ph.D., the study's co-author who was previously a research associate at UNC and is now chief researcher at the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science's Viral Infectious Diseases Project. "In future studies, we hope to further investigate this innate immunity of liver cells to regulate infection through IRF1 and to better understand why IRF1 sparks certain cellular functions to guard against particular RNA viruses." Source: Eurekalert << New Insights into Low-calorie Sweetener Tagatose Transgender Youth Faced With Tough Decision to Freeze Sperm ... >> Recommended Reading HBV Screening Tests used for screening hepatitis B are estimation of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibodies. READ MORE Test Your Knowledge on Zika Virus Zika virus is a mosquito-borne virus that causes fever, headache, skin rashes, joint and muscle pain in infected individuals. The symptoms usually last for only 2 to 7 days. Fetal symptoms vary and have led to International concern. ... READ MORE Top 15 Doīs and Donīts for Preventing and Managing Dengue Fever Dengue can be easily prevented and managed if you follow proper precautionary measures. Here we give you the most important do's and don'ts for dengue fever. READ MORE Novel Technique to Detect Viral Infections Developed Newly developed technique can help identify viral infections effectively. Using a small wire, scientists have developed a sensor that can detect as few as 10 antibody molecules within 20 minutes. READ MORE Current Treatments for Liver Cancer Current Treatments for Liver Cancer (also known as hepatoma or hepatocellular carcinoma) can result in complete cure of the disease if it is detected early. READ MORE Fatty Liver Disease: A Growing Health Problem in India Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of liver dysfunction worldwide and is a rapidly growing health problem in India. READ MORE Hepatitis A Hepatitis A is the most benign of the hepatitis viruses and usually has no long term side effects. Hepatitis A vaccine is available that is 95% effective in preventing the disease. READ MORE Living Donor Liver Transplant: What Are the Risks? The risk of dying as a result of a living donor liver segment removal is between 0.2-2.0%. The risk of morbidity is anywhere between 1.3% (in highly experienced centers) to 60%. READ MORE Milk Thistle Milk Thistle is a resourceful natural plant which has many medicinal benefits. In herbal medication milk thistle is used in cases of liver diseases. READ MORE Wilson's Disease This is a rare inherited systemic disorder of copper metabolism, affecting the liver mainly before other organs. READ MORE Most Popular on Medindia Iron Intake Calculator Drug Interaction Checker Indian Medical Journals More News on: Hepatitis AParkinsons Disease Surgical TreatmentLiverWilson's DiseaseMilk ThistleCurrent Treatments for Liver CancerFatty Liver Disease: A Growing Health Problem in IndiaLiving Donor Liver Transplant: What Are the Risks?