Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), is one major metabolite that is found in patients with acute heart failure.
The dietary source of TMAO is red meat and has been reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease. It is a source of L-carnitine which is broken down by gut bacteria to form TMAO.
In previous studies TMAO has been association with mortality risk in chronic heart failure but this association in acute heart failure is still unknown.
The study was the first to investigate association of TMAO levels in acute heart failure patients, a condition associated with high mortality and morbidity - and suggests involvement of the gut microbiota and diet in outcomes of acute heart failure.
This study shows an association between circulating levels of a metabolite of this process with prognosis of acute heart failure.
Professor Suzuki said,"Patients with acute heart failure showed higher levels of the oxidised metabolite TMAO in those that died or had a repeat admission to hospital with heart failure within the first year.
"Our study shows that higher levels of TMAO, a metabolite of carnitine derived from red meat, is associated with poorer outcomes associated with acute heart failure, one of the main diseases of the heart. This metabolic pathway provides a possible link between how red meat is associated with heart disease."