Bipedal walking may lead to skeletal change which can result in limb ischemia, research at the Kumamoto University finds. Peripheral obstructive arterial disease develops when blood vessels narrow due to arteriosclerosis and blood flow in the legs (or rarely the arms) becomes clogged. Intermittent claudication is when blood flow disturbances in a limb cause pain, numbness, or coldness during physical activity. In severe cases, where the tissue has gone without blood for too long and dies, the limb may have to be amputated. Previous clinical and animal research showed that mice receive less tissue damage under ischemic condition than humans, but the cause of the difference was not clear. To illustrate why humans seem to have such a disadvantage, researchers from Kumamoto University, Japan focused on collateral vessels that could bypass an obstruction. Using a murine hind limb ischemia model, they compared the shape of mouse hind limb blood vessels with those of a patient who had peripheral obstructive artery disease. ‘This study states that bipedal walking can cause limb ischemia. It claims that, over time, bipedal walking can cause the distance between the pelvis and the lower leg to become too far for the artery to reach and result in limb ischemia.’ There are techniques, such as radiography, that can be used to visualize the small blood vessels of a mouse but they can only produce two-dimensional images. To obtain more detail, the researchers elected to use a system built by a collaboration of engineering and medical science researchers that established a method for stereoscopic visualization of small structures, the micro X-ray CT. This allowed for the detailed visualization of mouse blood vessels through soft tissue and around bone. The micro CT scans clarified that when the hind limb of a mouse suffers from ischemia, the inferior gluteal artery expands and functions as a bypass. Even in human patients with peripheral obstructive artery disease, detailed diagnostic images revealed that the inferior gluteal artery expands in response to vascular stenosis (vessel hardening). Importantly, the researchers also showed that the inferior gluteal artery of the mouse extends to the lower hind leg area, whereas the human inferior gluteal artery terminates much earlier at the buttock. Consequently, the mouse vascular structure is more robust against lower limb ischemia than the human vascular structure. "Two things are believed to be the causes of the inhibited development of the inferior gluteal artery in humans," said Assistant Professor Yuichiro Arima, who led the study. "One is that the development of the artery is restricted by the skeletal change accompanying bipedal walking, and the other is that, over time, the distance between the pelvis and the lower leg has become too far for the artery to reach. In other words, evolution has increased the human risk for lower limb ischemia. This understanding is expected to lead to the development of treatments that strengthen the collateral circulation pathways for people suffering from peripheral obstructive arterial disease." This research is published in the Journal of American Heart Association. Source: Eurekalert << Stroke can Affect Both Physical and Mental Well-being Canada Bids To Follow Chile, On Putting Warnings Signs On J... >> Recommended Reading Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis or Osteonecrosis affects the bone and occurs because of the interruption to its blood supply resulting in bone death and leading to secondary osteoarthritis. READ MORE Transient Ischemic Attack Transient Ischemic Attack is a mini stroke caused due to interruption in the blood supply to the brain leading to symptoms which last for a short time. READ MORE Vascular Dementia Vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia. Though it has no cure, you can still learn to manage its symptoms and lead a joyful life. READ MORE Body Types and Befitting Workouts Workout and diet which is well suited for a pear shaped body. READ MORE Orthotics Orthotics is concerned using artificial supports or braces. Orthoses play an integral role in the rehabilitation of a large number of lives. READ MORE Walking As An Exercise People walk for many reasons ranging from pleasure to mental relaxation, finding solitude or for exercise. READ MORE Walking for Fitness and Weight Loss A few extra steps a day are enough to keep you fit. READ MORE Who Else Wants to Know How Walking Helps Heart and Brain? Walking early morning would improve your health as it helps heart and brain to function properly. Find more about its benefits for your body. READ MORE Most Popular on Medindia Indian Medical Journals Blood - Sugar Chart Color Blindness Calculator More News on: OrthoticsBody Types and Befitting WorkoutsWalking for Fitness and Weight LossWalking As An ExerciseTransient Ischemic AttackWho Else Wants to Know How Walking Helps Heart and Brain?