A study shows that learning new languages is a good way to keep the brain in shape and could encourage your brain to grow.
A group of researchers had an almost unique opportunity to observe what happens to the brain when we learn a new language in a short period of time.
Young recruits at the Swedish Armed Forces Interpreter Academy pick up a new language very fast, 13 months to be exact.
Those with a flair for languages learn to speak fluently in Arabic, Russian or Dari within 13 months. From morning to evening, weekdays and weekends, the recruits study at a pace unlike on any other language course.
As a control group, researchers used medicine and cognitive science students at Umea University -- students who also study hard, but not languages. Both groups were given MRI scans before and after a three-month period of intensive study.
While the brain structure of the control group (not learning a new language) remained unchanged, specific parts of the brain of the language students grew, according to an Umea statement.
The parts that developed in size were the hippocampus, a deep-lying brain structure that is involved in learning new material and spatial navigation, and three areas in the cerebral cortex.
"We were surprised that different parts of the brain developed to different degrees depending on how well the students performed and how much effort they had had to put in to keep up with the course," said Johan Martensson, researcher in psychology at Lund University, Sweden.
Students with greater growth in the hippocampus and areas of the cerebral cortex related to language learning (superior temporal gyrus) had better language skills than the other students.
In students who had to put more effort into their learning, greater growth was seen in an area of the motor region of the cerebral cortex (middle frontal gyrus).
The areas of the brain in which the changes take place are thus linked to how easy one finds it to learn a language and development varies according to performance.
Previous research from other groups has indicated that Alzheimer's disease has a later onset in bilingual or multilingual groups.
"Even if we cannot compare three months of intensive language study with a lifetime of being bilingual, there is a lot to suggest that learning languages is a good way to keep the brain in shape," said Martensson.