Harassment of working mothers is a growing problem in Japan, possibly aggravated by government policies aimed at keeping women in the workforce, experts say.
To stem a shrinking labour force, rapidly-ageing Japan is offering benefits for young mothers such as flexible working hours, including no night shifts to staff the nation's offices and factories. But the moves have stirred jealousy and resentment in many workplaces.
"The situation is downright serious," said Maeko Takenobu, an author of several books about female employment. "Many (women) suffer in silence as they have no other choice but work."
Nearly 48 percent of pregnant women say that have been the victim of bullying at work by colleagues or their immediate supervisor, according to a recent labour ministry investigation.
The same study found that one-third of working women have experienced sexual harassment at their place of employment, and a majority did not report the abuse. And harassment is not just confined to the workplace.
A decade ago, Japan rolled out a small badge to be worn by pregnant women, which said "I have a baby inside me".
- 'Womenomics' -
The button was designed to create a welcoming environment for pregnant women on subway trains and other public places as well as the office.
It was also meant for emergency first responders so they would avoid treatment potentially harmful to an unborn child.
The idea, however, has been a disappointment. Users are sometimes treated rudely on public transport, resulting in some women refusing to wear the badges for fear of becoming targets of harassment.
"Unfortunately, the badge is often seen as a sign of the vanity of being pregnant," said an editorial on akachan no heya, a widely followed website for pregnant women.
Prime Minister Shinzo Abe continues to pledge his support for working women as part of a wider bid to kick-start the country's struggling economy.
Economists have said for years that Japan needs to make better use of its well-educated but underemployed women, which could go a long way toward plugging the labour gap as it faces an ageing and declining population.
While women are well represented in poorly-paid, part-time work, only a fraction of executives at 3,600 listed companies are female.
Japan was ranked 101 out of 145 in the Global Gender Gap Index 2015, released by World Economic Forum, lower than Suriname and Azerbaijan.
Experts say Japanese society needs to look for more flexible solutions.
For example, the problem of waiting lists for children to enter nurseries will be hard to solve "until we enthusiastically introduce a system like the French 'nounous'", said Keio University's Takeshi Natsuno, referring to officially approved individual child care specialists.