Greenpeace activists painted the ship, A.P.J. Sridevi, with slogans that said, "cut coal, save climate".
Activists flagged the carrier from "climate patrols", inflatable dinghies launched from its flagship vessel "Rainbow Warrior".
Emitting around 1,889 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, India is the fifth largest emitter of the greenhouse gas, claimed Greenpeace in a statement.
India can bring down the share of electricity generated from coal to 55,000 MW from the current 80,000 MW and increase electricity generated from renewable sources by four times to 90,000 MW, said the statement.