by Sheela Philomena on  December 20, 2016 at 6:09 PM Health Watch
Highlights
  • Salmonella is responsible for one of the most common food-borne illnesses in the world.
  • Oral Salmonella vaccine developed.
  • Oral form of vaccination is the simplest way to protect people against salmonella infection.

Oral Vaccine Against Salmonella Developed
Vaccine to be taken by mouth against salmonella poisoning has been developed by The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) researchers.

In earlier studies conducted by the UTMB, the research team developed vaccines from the genetically mutant version of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. The vaccines were given as an injection.

However, an oral form of vaccination is the least and the most effective way to protect against salmonella infection. Taking the vaccine by mouth also had the added advantage of using the same pathway that Salmonella uses to wreak havoc on the digestive system.


"In the current study, we analyzed the immune responses of mice that received the vaccination by mouth as well as how they responded to a lethal dose of salmonella, said Ashok Chopra, UTMB professor of microbiology and immunology.

Salmonellosis
  • Salmonellosis is the infection caused by Salmonella bacteria.
  • Salmonella bacterium was first discovered by Dr. Salmon, an American scientist and has been known to cause illness for over 125 years.
  • In the United States, every year Salmonella causes one million foodborne illnesses with 19,000 hospitalizations and 380 deaths.
  • Symptoms due to salmonella infection include diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps 12 to 72 hours after infection.
  • The infection/illness usually lasts 4 to 7 days. In some cases diarrhea may be so severe that the patient needs to be hospitalized.
  • Children under the age of 5 years are at the highest risk of Salmonella infection. Young children, elderly and people with weakened immune system are more likely to have severe infections.
  • The infections are more common in the summer than winter.
  • Since 1996 the number of salmonella infections cases in the US has not changed.
  • Antibiotics are the first choice in the treatment of Salmonella infections.
  • Some strains of Salmonella are developing antibiotic resistance which is a serious concern among healthcare workers.
  • Salmonella can also be used as a bio-weapon - In Oregon a religious cult has intentionally contaminated restaurant salad bars with salmonella and sickened around 1000 people.
Tips To Prevent Salmonella Infection
  • Do not eat foods containing raw eggs or unpasteurized milk. Cook poultry, ground beef and eggs thoroughly.
  • Wash hands, utensils with soap and water immediately after their contact with raw meat or poultry.
  • Be careful with foods prepared for infants, older people and immunocompromised patients.
  • Mother's milk prevents salmonella infection and many other health problems in young infants.
  • Cook foods to a safe internal temperature.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water after contact with animals, their food or their living environment
  • References
    1. Tatiana E. Erova, Michelle L. Kirtley, Eric C. Fitts, Duraisamy Ponnusamy, Wallace B. Baze, Jourdan A. Andersson, Yingzi Cong, Bethany L. Tiner, Jian Sha, Ashok K. Chopra..Protective Immunity Elicited by Oral Immunization of Mice with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Braun Lipoprotein (Lpp) and Acetyltransferase (MsbB) Mutants; Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology; (2016) DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2016.00148
    2. Salmonella Information - (https://www.cdc.gov/phlp/docs/forensic_epidemiology/Additional%20Materials/Articles/Torok%20et%20al.pdf)
    3. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia - (https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/child-all-treatment-pdq )
    4. Salmonella Prevention - (https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/general/prevention.html)
    5. Salmonella Food Safety - (https://www.foodsafety.gov/poisoning/causes/bacteriaviruses/salmonella/)
    Source: Medindia

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