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Neonatal Vaccination With Bacteria Suppresses Asthma as Adults

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Highlights:
  • Asthma affects 25 million people in the United States and exposure of Cockroach detritus allergen causes severe form of asthma.
  • A recent study finds neonatal vaccination with bacteria on newborn mice can suppress asthma in adults.
  • Neonatal vaccination with Enterobacter that produces alpha 1,3 glucan are found to be protective.

Neonatal Vaccination With Bacteria Suppresses Asthma as Adults

A research team from the University of Alabama at Birmingham have used asthma model to support hygiene hypothesis. Their study reported that vaccination of newborn mice with particular bacteria is capable of suppressing asthma in adults who were exposed to cockroach detritus.

The recent study "Neonatal α-1,3-glucan exposure suppresses cockroach allergy," was published in the Journal of Immunology.

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John Kearney, Ph.D., and team depicted that neonatal vaccination using Enterobacter bacteria that can express alpha-1,3-glucan molecules on its surface will be able to suppress german cockroach-induced asthma in adults. Vaccination with purified alpha 1.3-glucan was found to be protective while immunizing a strain of enterobacter which cannot express alpha 1,3 glucan was not protective.

Previous studies which were carried in 2012 and 2015, showed neonatal vaccination of mice with Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria suppressed asthma after exposure to fungus allergens like Aspergillus fumigatus and house dust mites.
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Kearney , Professor in Microbiology in UAB School of Medicine said, "It's pretty amazing, "We started doing neonatal immunizations in all three asthma models, and we found that all three were protected against asthma-like symptoms."

The author also said that there can only be protection during the childhood. He also added that "We do not see protection if we immunize the adults, "The exposure has to happen early -- in human equivalents, probably within the first two years. The kinds of immune cells that appear early in life appear to change later in life."

Around 25 million people in the United States are affected by asthma out of which 7 million are children. Cockroach- derived allergens are associated with severe asthma.

Neonatal vaccination with bacteria prevents asthma due to the selection of a specific set of immune system B cells which are capable of producing IgA antibodies and for Aspergus fumigatus and house dust mites neonatal vaccination produces IgM antibodies.
"All three models are B cell-mediated," author said.

The research team concluded that prophylaxis of neonatal vaccination with bacteria containing alpha-1,3 glucans during early life are potential in suppressing long-lived asthma due to cockroach detritus.



Source: Medindia

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