Does Drinking Diet Soda Increase Stroke Risk Among Post-menopausal Women?

Does Drinking Diet Soda Increase Stroke Risk Among Post-menopausal Women?

by Adeline Dorcas on  February 14, 2019 at 4:49 PM Health Watch
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Highlights:
  • Drinking too many diet drinks every day may increase stroke risk among post-menopausal women
  • Diet drinks may help you replace high calorie and sugary beverages
  • High intake of artificially sweetened diet drinks such as colas and sodas were twice likely to increase stroke risk
  • However, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends water (plain, carbonated and unsweetened flavored) as the best choice for a no-calorie drink
Drinking multiple diet drinks on a daily basis can put post-menopausal women at a higher risk of developing stroke, reports a new study. The findings of the study are published in Stroke, a journal of the American Heart Association.
Does Drinking Diet Soda Increase Stroke Risk Among Post-menopausal Women?

Among post-menopausal women, drinking multiple diet drinks daily was associated with an increase in the risk of having a stroke caused by a blocked artery, especially small arteries, according to research.

This is one of the first studies to look at the association between drinking artificially sweetened beverages and the risk of specific types of stroke in a large, racially diverse group of post-menopausal women.

Details of the Study

While this study identifies an association between diet drinks and stroke, it does not prove cause and effect because it was an observational study based on self-reported information about diet drink consumption.

Diet Drinks May Do More Harm Than Good

Compared with women who consumed diet drinks less than once a week or not at all, women who consumed two or more artificially sweetened beverages per day were:
  • 23 percent more likely to have a stroke;
  • 31 percent more likely to have a clot-caused (ischemic) stroke;
  • 29 percent more likely to develop heart disease (fatal or non-fatal heart attack); and
  • 16 percent more likely to die from any cause.

Who Are At Risk?

The team of researchers found risks were higher for certain women. Heavy intake of diet drinks, defined as two or more times daily, more than doubled stroke risk in:
  • women without previous heart disease or diabetes, who were 2.44 times as likely to have a common type of stroke caused by blockage of one of the very small arteries within the brain;
  • obese women without previous heart disease or diabetes, who were 2.03 times as likely to have a clot-caused stroke; and
  • African-American women without previous heart disease or diabetes, who were 3.93 times as likely to have a clot-caused stroke.

"Many well-meaning people, especially those who are overweight or obese, drink low-calorie sweetened drinks to cut calories in their diet. Our research and other observational studies have shown that artificially sweetened beverages may not be harmless and high consumption is associated with a higher risk of stroke and heart disease," said Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Ph.D., lead author of the study and associate professor of clinical epidemiology and population health at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, New York.

The research team analyzed data on 81,714 postmenopausal women (age 50-79 years at the start) participating in the Women's Health Initiative study that tracked health outcomes for an average of 11.9 years after they enrolled between 1993 and 1998. At their three-year evaluation, the women reported how often in the previous three months they had consumed diet drinks such as low calorie, artificially sweetened colas, sodas, and fruit drinks. The data collected did not include information about the specific artificial sweetener the drinks contained.

Findings of the Study

The results were obtained after adjusting for various stroke risk factors such as age, high blood pressure, and smoking. These results in postmenopausal women may not be generalizable to men or younger women. The study is also limited by having only the women's self-report of diet drink intake.

"We don't know specifically what types of artificially sweetened beverages they were consuming, so we don't know which artificial sweeteners may be harmful and which may be harmless," Mossavar-Rahmani said.

The American Heart Association recently published a science advisory that found there was inadequate scientific research to conclude that low-calorie sweetened beverages do - or do not - alter risk factors for heart disease and stroke in young children, teens or adults. The Association recognizes diet drinks may help replace high calorie, sugary beverages, but recommends water (plain, carbonated and unsweetened flavored) as the best choice for a no-calorie drink.

"Unfortunately, current research simply does not provide enough evidence to distinguish between the effects of different low-calorie sweeteners on heart and brain health. This study adds to the evidence that limiting use of diet beverages is the most prudent thing to do for your health," said Rachel K. Johnson, Ph.D., R.D., professor of nutrition emeritus, University of Vermont and the chair of the writing group for the American Heart Association's science advisory, Low-Calorie Sweetened Beverages and Cardiometabolic Health.

"The American Heart Association suggests water as the best choice for a no-calorie beverage. However, for some adults, diet drinks with low-calorie sweeteners may be helpful as they transition to adopting water as their primary drink. Since long-term clinical trial data are not available on the effects of low-calorie sweetened drinks and cardiovascular health, given their lack of nutritional value, it may be prudent to limit their prolonged use," said Johnson.

Source: Eurekalert

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