- High coffee intake helps lower the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD)
- People who drink more than 6 cups of coffee can prevent the formation of gallstones
Coffee can help reduce the risk of developing gallstones, reveals a new study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Among 104,493 individuals, those who drank more than six cups of coffee per day had a 23% lower risk of developing symptomatic gallstones compared with individuals who did not drink coffee.
Drinking one extra cup of coffee per day was associated with 3% lower risk. Also, individuals with certain genetic variants that have been linked to increased coffee consumption had a lower risk of gallstones.
Details of the Study
The research team tested the hypothesis that high coffee intake causally protects against symptomatic GSD using a Mendelian randomization design.
- First, they tested whether high coffee intake was associated with low risk of GSD in 104 493 individuals from the general population. Mean follow‐up was 8 years (range: <1-13 years).
- Secondly, we tested whether two genetic variants near CYP1A1/A2 (rs2472297) and AHR (rs4410790), combined as an allele score, were associated with higher coffee intake measured as a continuous variable.
- Thirdly, we tested whether the allele score was associated with lower risk of GSD in 114 220 individuals including 7294 gallstone events. Mean follow‐up was 38 years (range: <1-40 years).
In observational analysis, those with coffee intake of >6 cups daily had 23% lower risk of GSD compared to individuals without coffee intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.61-0.94)].
In genetic analysis, there was a stepwise higher coffee intake of up to 41% (caffeine per day) in individuals with 4 (highest) versus 0 (lowest) coffee intake alleles (P for trend = 3 x 10−178) and a corresponding stepwise lower risk of GSD up to 19%[HR = 0.81 (0.69-0.96)].
The estimated observational odds ratio for GSD for a one cup per day higher coffee intake was 0.97 (0.96-0.98), equal to 3% lower risk. The corresponding genetic odds ratio was 0.89 (0.83-0.95), equal to 11% lower risk.
Drinking more than six cups of coffee can lower the risk of developing symptomatic gallstone disease (GSD).