- Smoking during pregnancy can disrupt developing an endocrine system of the female fetus in the womb causing increased testosterone levels and masculinization of the fetus, and lowering fertility in the longer term
- Level of testosterone exposure was estimated by measuring the anogenital distance (AGD), the distance from the midpoint of the anus to the genitalia and was found to be longer in girl babies whose mothers smoked. There was no similar change in boy babies
- Nevertheless, further research is needed to gain more insight and to explain the relationship between maternal smoking, increased AGD in baby girls and long term health issues
Pregnant women who smoke put their daughter's at risk of
girls in the womb exposed to higher levels of the male hormone,
testosterone, due to maternal smoking during pregnancy are at higher risk of
abnormal development and long-term ill effects on their endocrine functions,
The study was conducted by Dr. Deniz Ozalp Kizilay and colleagues at Cigli State Training Hospital in Turkey and the findings of the study are being presented at the 58th Annual European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Meeting.
Measuring Effect of Maternal Smoking on Female Fetuses
- The study team measured anogenital distance (AGD) in 56 newborn girl babies and 64 boy babies, whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy
- AGD was markedly higher in the baby girls and bore a direct relationship to the amount of cigarettes their mothers smoked during pregnancy . No such change was noted on the AGD in the boys
- The significant increase in AGD in girls exposed to maternal smoking suggests likely testosterone exposure in the fetus that affects the endocrine system development resulting in fertility issues and metabolic problems later in life
- More research is needed to understand the exact nature of the relationship between maternal smoking, increased AGD and longterm health problems in girls
Future PlansThe team now plan to follow up effects of exposure to high testosterone levels in the womb caused by maternal smoking in the same group of baby girls, to see how this impacts their long-term fertility
In summary, maternal smoking during pregnancy can adversely affect the endocrine development of female fetus and cause fertility issues later in life. It is well known that smoking during pregnancy harms both the mother and baby and this study is yet another reason why women should abstain from smoking during pregnancy.
- Prenatal Smoke-Exposure is Associated with Increased Anogenital Distance in Female Infants - (http://abstracts.eurospe.org/hrp/0092/hrp0092lb-14)