Melanoma, a deadly form of skin
and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
(NHL), a solid tumorous
condition of the immune system have increased in many regions over the last
‘Total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy to assess biochemical changes induced by non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and subcutaneous melanoma.’
4.3 percent of new cancer cases in the United States have non-Hodgkin's
lymphoma and 3 -7% of fair-skinned population are diagnosed with cutaneous
melanoma. The available diagnostic regimen for both cancers, which includes
tissue examination and biopsy, is time-consuming, invasive and costly,
resulting in small compliance rates of eligible populations for cancer
diagnosis and treatment of both the cancers improve the patients' chances of
survival and so developing a rapid and reliable pre-screening strategy is
critical. To avoid delay in diagnosis and to screen for the diseases, blood
serum derived from experimental mice were tested using mid-infrared
Mid-infrared spectroscopy helps
differentiate mice with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and subcutaneous melanoma from
healthy mice and also between these two conditions.
To characterize biological samples at
the molecular level, the mid-infrared spectral region of the electromagnetic
spectrum is frequently used.
findings of a recent study suggest infrared spectroscopy can detect
biochemical changes induced by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,
a solid tumorous
condition of the immune system.
Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR)
sampling mode compared to other vibrational spectroscopy provides high-quality
results with better reproducibility. It has attracted scientists' attention for
its rapid and reliable detection of various health conditions using body fluid
Unil Perera, Regents' Professor of Physics at Georgia State said, "This
study shows infrared spectroscopy can identify cancer. Right now, when you go
to the doctor, they do blood tests for sugar and several other things, but not
for serious diseases like cancer and colitis. If you are a healthy person,
there is a range that is normal. One day, we hope that even these serious
diseases can be rapidly screened. Your primary doctor could keep a record of
your number and check that every time you come back. Then, if there is some
indication of cancer or colitis, they can do biopsies, colonoscopies,
his previous work, Dr Perera discovered that a fast, simple blood test for
ulcerative colitis using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy could provide a cheaper, less
invasive alternative for screening compared to colonoscopy.
Spectroscopy to Diagnose Two Cancers
research team used mice with lymphoma and melanoma cancers
. Blood serum droplets extracted
from cancerous mice and control mice were placed on an ATR crystal of the FTIR
instrument. The serum absorbed infrared beams and reflected them creating a
wave that was recorded. Further, this wave was used to produce an absorbance
curve with peaks that identified the presence of certain biomarkers in the
scientists compared the absorbance curves from the control and tumorous mice.
The biochemical changes induced by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and subcutaneous
melanoma in the serum samples were assessed.
Remarkable differences were found between
the ATR-FTIR spectra of serum samples from mice with melanoma and that of
non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and healthy, control mice.
and humans have some biomarkers in common and so the findings are applicable to
humans. In previous studies on colitis, Perera and his colleagues identified
specific chemicals that changed in humans and mice when colitis was present.
team can develop detectors for these particular absorbance peaks, which doctors
could use to test patients' blood samples for these cancers.
these biomarkers can be tracked from infancy and can be monitored over the
years to know exactly when the numbers begin to change. Dr. Perera said, "To
make before and after comparisons of the blood samples, the data could be
entered into a computer program and available statistical analysis software
would determine any significant differences. Doctors wouldn't need to do any
the future, Perera and his colleagues would like to use samples from human
patients for infrared spectroscopy studies of cancer and other diseases.
- Hemendra Ghimire, Mahathi Venkataramani, Zhen Bian, Yuan Liu, A. G. Unil Perera. ATR-FTIR spectral discrimination between normal and tumorous mouse models of lymphoma and melanoma from serum samples. Scientific Reports, 2017; 7 (1) DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-17027-4