difficile bacterium can be a common cause for most
of the intestinal infections.
- A team of
researchers from Scripps Research Institute (SRI) found salicylanilides to
be effective against Clostridium difficile bacteria.
act by altering the electrical properties of the cell membrane to disrupt
the survival of Clostridium difficile bacteria.
A research team from the
Scripps Research Institute (SRI) have discovered that several class of existing
anthelmintic drugs (deworming drugs) called salicylanilides to be effective
against Clostridium difficile
are found to be a major cause for most
of the intestinal infections in United States.
The study found that several
strains including epidemic and hypervirulent strains of Clostridium difficile
bacterium which recurs after treatment were also killed using salicylanilides.
‘Salicylanilide drugs are now found to combat Clostridium difficile infections.’
The research study
focusing on C.difficile
infections was published online in the Scientific
Research Study on
Salicylanilides are chemical
amide compounds of salicylic acid and anilines
. Drugs like niclosamide
oxyclozanide, rafoxanide are some of the salicylanilides which are effective
Kim D. Janda, the Ely R.
Callaway, Jr. Professor of Chemistry, Director of the Worm Institute for
Research & Medicine (WIRM) , Member of The Skaggs Institute for Chemical
Biology at TSRI and senior author of the study said that "These salicylanilide
compounds have all the right features, and they've long been used in animals,
so I think they can be quickly repurposed against C. difficile
Closantel a veterinary
drug for deworming cattle, sheep and goat was used as a control for the discovery of new
compounds for C.difficle
infections. After noting its effectiveness ,
Gooyit and Janda tested niclosamide, oxyclozanide and rafoxanide for treating C.difficle
rafoxanide are approved veterinary drugs for deworming animals. Niclosamide is
used for the treatment of tapeworm infections in humans.
Gooyit said "We found
that these salicylanilides inhibited the growth of a broad selection of
strains, including the BI/NAP1/027 strain, with similar and sometimes greater
in vitro activity than metronidazole's and vancomycin's"
of the study reported that closantel and rafoxanide were effective in killing
the stationary phase cells of C. difficile infections
. These cells
are important toxins which damage gut wall and stimulates inflammation in
infections. Stationary phase cells are hard seed-like spores
which tend to stay on the surface for long time and is responsible for high
transmission rates of infections in the hospitals.
Favorable Properties of
- Stays in the Gut
for Longer Time: Pills or the oral
form of salicylanilides are not well absorbed in the bloodstream which
makes it stay in the gut for a longer time thereby increasing the
potency and minimizing the side effects.
- Low Drug
Resistance: There is no significant resistance
for salicylanilides by C.difficile bacteria.
- Impact on Good
Gut Bacteria: Good gut bacteria are mostly microorganisms present
in the digestive tract and plays a major role in preventing bowel disorders, ulcers and
other inflammatory conditions. Salicylanilides have minimal impact on good
Mechanism Behind Salicylanilide
Previous studies suggest
that salicylanilides are found to act by altering the electrical properties
of the cell membrane which disrupts the existence of C.difficile
compounds were designed by improving membrane targeting effects for killing C.difficile
are bacterial infections which lead to diarrhea and colitis infections
(inflammation of colon). According to an analysis in 2011 from the Center
for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC), it was estimated that 450,000 cases
and 30,000 deaths were due to C.difficile infections in United States.
These infections mostly
occur after treatment with antibiotics (mainly broad spectrum antibiotics which
act against several types of bacteria), people with weak immune system, staying
in a hospital for long time or any other conditions like inflammatory disease.
infections may include:
- Watery diarrhea
- Painful abdominal cramps
- Loss of appetite
- Weight loss