Suicide and Self-harm: What is it? How to Overcome?
- The most common method of suicide is hanging
- In case of a parasuicide report, the most common method is
- Suicide in a 60-year-old married male is far less common in comparison to a 30-year-old unmarried male.
- About 15-50% people leave a suicide note.
The term suicide denotes self-planned and deliberate termination of
one's life. Suicide is the most common cause of death
among the psychiatric patients.
Suicide rates increase with age; the highest rates of suicidal
tendencies are seen in the adolescents and young adults in the age group of 15-30 years old. A completed
suicide history is more common in males, and suicide attempts are far more common in females.
‘Prevalence of suicide is increasing among adolescents and young adults in the age group of 15-30 years old.’
Causes and Risk factors for Suicide
They are the main cause of suicide in people
. Depression stands the most common
and alcoholism stands the second most common way to attempt suicide. Other causes are drug abuse
, substance abuse, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, dependence, schizophrenia, and dementia.
Diseases like cancer,
AIDS, multiple sclerosis, head trauma.
Failure in love, marital
difficulties, family dispute, and illegitimate pregnancy, losing a loved one,
unemployment and bullying
There is a marked
decrease in serotonin levels with decreased urinary and 5-HIAA (A urinary
Male sex, age>40
years, social isolation, single, unmarried, divorced or widowed, and a history of suicidal
The three most important causes of suicides among the above
Major depression, substance abuse, and schizophrenia
We look for the following warning signs
in an individual suffering from a major depression
and if he or she is at a very high risk of suicide and
- Depressed or low mood: a person feels empty or sad and tearful.
- Loss of interest in all the day-to-day pleasurable activities.
- Loss of energy, feeling fatigue or weakness
- Loss of confidence or self-esteem
- Unreasonable feelings of self-reproach, excessive or inappropriate guilt.
- Recurrent thoughts of suicide or death or suicidal behavior.
- Diminished activity to think or concentrate or indecisiveness.
- Psychomotor agitation or retardation
- Insomnia or hypersomnia
- Decrease or increase in appetite
- Increased consumption of alcohol or drugs.
Getting agitated and experiencing extreme
mood swings. Ways to overcome suicide:
document on suicide prevention, self-harm and managing low mental state of an
individual stated these factors, which could decrease the risk of suicidal
tendencies in individuals:
spreading awareness that suicide is a public health problem that it is
broad-based support for suicide prevention and future attempts.
strategies to reduce the stigma associated with being a victim of poor
mental health, substance abuse and an agent of suicide prevention
and act on community-based suicide prevention programs
the efforts to reduce access to lethal means and methods of self-harm and
training for recognition of at-risk behavior and delivery of effective
treatment for suicidal thoughts and tendencies.
and promote effective clinical and professional practices; thereby diverging
the suicidal thoughts to happy thoughts.
Various methods aim at decreasing and
treating the suicide
risk factors. These are:
- Psychotherapy - It is also called as psychological counseling or talk therapy.
- This method explores the issues that make the person feel suicidal and learn skills to help manage emotions more effectively. The therapist and the patient can work together to develop a treatment plan for the same.
- Medications - Antidepressants, antipsychotic medications, anti-anxiety medications and other medications for mental illness can help decrease the symptoms, which decrease the suicidal thoughts in future.
- Treatment for drug or alcohol addiction can include detoxification, addiction treatment programs, and rehabilitation.
Family support and education can also help in understanding what is going on in the mind
of a person who is suicidal, and this approach can help a person to have
a normal and relaxed state of mind.