- Diabetes is a chronic
metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar
- Daily Insulin injections are important for control
of blood sugar in diabetics
- A research team from McCourt/Mielnicki
Lab have discovered a newer technique for painless diabetic
- The novel method involves the use of
Cholestosomes for encapsulating insulin.
- Cholestosomes are
neutral lipid molecules which packs insulin and delivers it in the bloodstream.
A research team has
developed encapsulated insulin for diabetes treatment using a new technology
called CholestosomeTM. Cholestosomes are usually vesicles made of naturally
occuring lipid molecules.
The work will be
presented at the 252nd
National Meeting & Exposition of the
American Chemical Society (ACS) which is considered to be the world's largest
‘Get rid of Insulin needles, instead have capsules to control your diabetes’
Research on the
Discovery of the Encapsulated Insulin
Oral insulin instead of
injection has been researched for many years. The problem with oral insulin is
that it degrades in the gastrointestinal tract and this results in inadequate
blood levels of insulin.
A major advancement has
taken place by a team from Niagara University. They have been able to package
the insulin to stops its degradation. Insulin when taken orally does not match
with the acidic environment of the stomach making it ineffective therefore a
protective shield made of polymer coating is required to protect the insulin
from stomach acid and is tested for clinical trials.
Mary McCourt, Ph.D.,
leader of the research team said that "We have developed a new technology
called a CholestosomeTM''
"CholestosomeTM is a
neutral, lipid-based particle that is capable of doing some very interesting
thing." she added.
A new technique of encapsulating
insulin using patented cholestosomesTM was developed in the McCourt/Mielnicki
lab by McCourt, Lawrence Mielnicki, Ph.D., and undergraduate student Jamie
Catalano - all from Niagara University.
The cholestosome are
naturally occuring lipid molecules which are considered to be building blocks
of fat and differ from liposomes that serve as lipid based drug carrier.
"Most liposomes need to
be packaged in a polymer coating for protection," says Mielnicki. "Here, we're
just using simple lipid esters to make vesicles with the drug molecules
depicts that neutral particles are formed by lipids when they are arranged in
the form of spheres to resist the attack of stomach acids. Drugs are fed into
the neutral particles which do not degrade in the stomach and when it reaches
the intestines it is absorbed. These vesicles then pass through the bloodstream
where the cells break them to release insulin.
Factors like optimal pH
and ionic strength are considered while packing insulin into the drug
containing solution. A number of multiple molecules with vesicles were tested
on animals. Results on treating rats with cholestotomes containing insulin
proved to show that maximum amount of insulin had reached the bloodstream.
About Diabetes and
metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels. About 415 million
people in the world have diabetes. Out of which about 69.1 million cases are
reported from India in 2015. Common symptoms of diabetes include frequent
urination, excessive thirst, fatigue and weight loss.
There are two main types of diabetes
primarily classified based on insulin -
Type 1 diabetes -
insufficiency of pancreas to produce insulin.
Type 2 diabetes - due to
a peptide hormone produced by the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans in the
pancreas. It plays a major role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and
proteins by absorbing the blood glucose. Insulin is usually degraded in the
Treatment for Diabetes/
Management for Diabetes:
Common treatment for
diabetes involves the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs like metformin
acarbose as they lower the blood sugar levels. However in some resistant cases, Insulin seems to be the effective treatment for diabetes. Insulin is most commonly given in the form of subcutaneous
which are painful. They
are preferably injected into the abdomen, thighs or in the fatty area of the
There are various types
of insulin which may be rapidly acting insulin, regular, intermediate or long
acting insulin which is capable of lowering the blood glucose levels. However
these injections may result in redness, itching or allergic reactions and
swelling at the injection site. Other measures like following a healthy
lifestyle, diet and proper exercises are necessary for managing diabetes
The oral insulin
capsules will help with better patient compliance as some patients do not like
the injections and skip the dose.
- Diabetes - (https://medlineplus.gov/diabetes.html)
- Diabetes in India - 2015 - (http://www.idf.org/membership/sea/india)