- University of Leeds researchers studied389,057
patients who suffered a heart attack.
- 5 factors that significantlycorrelated with
increased survival after heart attack were identified.
- Invasive coronary strategy found to lower
mortality by 46%
The University of Leeds have identified certain factors that could improve
survival of heart attack patients. A heart attack can be fatal if the patient does not receive immediate medical
A heart attack
occurs when a portion of the heart does not receive enough blood and deprives
heart muscle of oxygen supply.
In most instances, a
heart attack is caused due to coronary heart disease.
‘46% decrease in mortality on using Invasive Coronary Strategy after heart attack.’
Symptoms of a
It is important
to understand the symptoms that could occur during a heart attack
to be able to identify an attack, these include -
important aspect in surviving a heart attack is to get the patient to reach a
hospital or to receive medical care within the golden hour.
The golden hour is the critical hour from the start of
the heart attack and the patient should reach the hospital within this time.
Most fatalities occur when the patient does not receive medical
care during this period.
published by Dr.Hall and colleagues lists the following tips to increase
chances for survival after a heart attack. The study was conducted following a
decline in the number of fatalities following a heart attack globally and the
authors wanted to identify factors that contributed to this decline among
non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) type of heart attacks.
Five Tips to Improve Survival following a Heart Attack
: Invasive Coronary Strategy
with NSTEMI were studied during the period from 2003 to 2013, out of which
there were 113,586 deaths. Parameters that were studied to understand the risk
- Systolic blood
- Heart rate
- Elevated enzyme levels
to understand the lowered mortality rates and risk after a heart attack, showed
that invasive coronary strategy lowered mortality rates by 46%. The strategies
included percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary angiography and coronary artery bypass graft surgery
Based on these
parameters, the risk level was found to be lowered. The mortality also
decreased from 10.8% to 7.8% at 180 days.
: The use of Aspirin & P2Y12 inhibitor
is a blood thinner and is used to restrict the
formation of clots which lead to a heart attack. Aspirin is widely used among
heart patients and is found to have other associated benefits. Taking aspirin
during such an episode helps lowering the fatality.
The use of P2Y12
inhibitor too has been found to be effective as anti-thrombotic therapy.
Dominic Angiolillo in their study titled "Update on novel p2y12 inhibitors:
focus on prasugrel, ticagrelor, cangrelor and elinogrel". These drugs inhibit the development of platelets and can lower
recurrent heart attacks.
Tip 3: Beta
work by lowering the heart rate, which lowers the requirement of oxygen by the
heart with a reduction in the frequency of heart attacks.
Tip 4 :
Angiotenesin Converting Enzyme(ACE):
the size of the blood vessels, making them wide. This lowers blood pressure and
the risk of another heart attack.
It has been
found that the intake of salt lowers the activity of the enzyme and a high salt
diet should be avoided.
are found to lower the
level of LDL cholesterol which is considered to be the bad cholesterol. The
build up of cholesterol in the body can lead to blockage of the arteries which
increases a heart attack risk. Regular intake of statins will help control the
risk for a heart attack as a long term strategy.
Though many of
these drugs have been in use among heart patients, this study found a
significant association between the above factors and survival after a heart
attack, thereby reinstating the importance of these drugs in cardiac therapy.
What is non-ST elevation Myocardial Infarction
(NSTEMI) type of heart attacks?
Elevation Myocardial Infarction (NSTEMI) is a medical emergency and is one of
the 3 types of heart attacks or Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS).
The three types of Acute Coronary
Syndrome (ACS) are as follows -
- STEMI (ST Segment Elevation Myocardial
Infarction) - a "full" heart attack
- Non-ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
- & Unstable angina
In all the three types
a plaque inside the arterial wall of coronary artery
ruptures and causes partial or complete blockage to the flow of the blood to
the cardiac muscles.
If the blockage is
complete it results in STEMI and the ST segments of the ECG ( or electrocardiogram) become raised or elevated on the
tracing and the cardiac enzymes too
rise. This will result in death of heart muscle.
However in both
unstable angina and NSTEMI, the blockage partial or not complete and the
chances of these becoming a "full" heart attack is very high unless
an intervention is undertaken. Also both are
similar except in other ways too except that in NSTEMI the cardiac
enzyme blood tests are abnormal. This indicates that at least some actual cell
damage is occurring to heart muscle cells.
: MedIndia does not endorse any of the above factors and individuals
need to consult a certified medical professional before undertaking any
medication or procedure.
- Aspirin and Heart Disease - (http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/PreventionTreatmentofHeart
- Heart Attack - Symptoms - (https://www.bhf.org.uk/heart-health/conditions/heart-attack)
- Heart and Stroke Statistics - (http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/General/Heart-and-Stroke-Association-Statistics_UCM_319064_SubHomePage.jsp)
- Drug Cabinet: Beta blockers - (https://www.bhf.org.uk/heart-matters-magazine/medical/drug-cabinet/beta-blockers)