Conjugate Typhoid Vaccine Prequalified by WHO

Conjugate Typhoid Vaccine Prequalified by WHO

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Highlights:
  • The Typbar vaccine has been prequalified by the WHO which will increase its availability in low-income countries through United Nations agencies
  • Vaccines available for typhoid prevention so far include the inactivated injectable and the live oral vaccines.
  • The new vaccine will hopefully reduce the number of typhoid cases in affected countries.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has prequalified the typhoid conjugate vaccine called Typbar-TCV. This means that:
  • The WHO has reviewed the available evidence for the vaccine, tested the consistency of each lot, and visited the manufacturing site.
  • The vaccine met the necessary requirements for quality, safety and efficacy.
  • The vaccine can be procured by United Nations agencies like the UNICEF, and Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.
  • The licensing of the drug may be expedited in non-GAIL countries as well.

As a result

  • The vaccine will be available to people in low-income countries where typhoid is most prevalent and the vaccine is most needed.
  • The use of antibiotics for presumed typhoid infection will be less, thus possibly reducing antibiotic resistance of Salmonella Typhi the bacterium responsible for typhoid.

About Typbar

The Typbar vaccine contains the cell surface Vi polysaccharide antigen extracted from Salmonella typhi Ty2 strain. It is administered to adults and children over 2 years of age as a single 0.5 ml intramuscular injection. A booster should be administered within 3 years to individuals who continue to be at a risk of typhoid infection.
Conjugate Typhoid Vaccine Prequalified by WHO

The Typbar vaccine is a conjugate vaccine (TCV) that is known to have longer-lasting immunity, requires fewer doses, and can be given to young children through routine childhood immunization programs.

Adverse reactions may include allergic reaction, local injection-site reactions like pain and redness, malaise, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, muscle pain and increase in temperature. It should be stored in a fridge but should not be frozen. The vaccine does not confer protection against paratyphoid fever. It should not be used in individuals allergic to the vaccine, and should be avoided in pregnant or breastfeeding mothers, children below 2 years of age, patients with bleeding disorders, or in the presence of fever or acute infection.

About Typhoid

Typhoid is a bacterial infection caused by Salmonella typhi. It spreads through contaminated food and water, commonly due to unhygienic conditions. Symptoms include high fever, stomach pain, diarrhea or constipation, weakness and rash. Possible complications include intestinal bleeding and perforation, inflammation of the heart, pancreas, bone or meninges, and lung, kidney or bladder infection.

Typhoid is treated with specific antibiotics. However, resistance has developed to several antibiotics, making it more difficult to treat. Typhoid can be prevented through proper sanitary measures and with vaccines. The killed vaccine is administered as an injection, while the live vaccine is administered orally as a capsule on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 and can be repeated every 5 years.

References:
  1. WHO prequalifies breakthrough vaccine for typhoid - (http://www.who.int/medicines/news/2017/WHOprequalifies-breakthrough-typhoid-vaccine/en/)
  2. Typbar - Vaccine for Children - (http://www.bharatbiotech.com/pdf/TypbarPFSandViallbl-2011Fcc.pdf)

Source-Medindia

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