- Insulin is a hormone
produced by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar
- Replacing the hydrogen atom of insulin with an
iodine atom may improve release and availability of
- Chemically modified insulin may help to optimize
treatment for diabetes.
its efficacy, and is available more quickly when a hydrogen atom of the hormone
is replaced with an iodine atom, finds a study from the University of Basel.
The research team was
able to confirm the effects of the hormone using experiments that were carried
following computer simulations.
‘Replacing the hydrogen atom of insulin with an iodine atom may clinically optimize treatment for diabetes.’
The study findings were
published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Insulin is produced in
the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas and regulates blood glucose levels.
According to the Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention, around 2.9 million people in the United
States were found to depend only on insulin for diabetes treatment during 2010-2012.
Aim of the Study
The research team aims
to develop artificial insulin to optimize treatment for diabetes mellitus.
of insulin may improve its release and availability in the
Replacing the individual
atom of the insulin molecule in a targeted manner may be a strategic approach
to develop insulin analogs.
The research team led by
Professor Markus Meuwly from the Department of Chemistry at the University of
Basel along with scientists from the USA and Australia has
investigated the chemically
A single hydrogen atom
of the insulin molecule was replaced by an iodine atom. This may help to
modulate intermolecular interactions which may speed insulin release and
Replacing the hydrogen
atom with iodine atom may also retain the affinity for insulin receptor and
biological function when compared to the natural insulin hormone.
These advantages of
chemically modifying the insulin were first predicted using quantum chemistry
and molecular dynamics simulations.
The changes in stability
of the modified insulin were studied using crystallographic and nuclear
magnetic resonance experiments.
Chemically Modified Insulin
What is Insulin?
- Using halogen atoms like chlorine,
iodine may help to optimize compounds for
- Iodinated insulin may provide potential in the
field of protein engineering.
Insulin is an essential
hormone that carries out various metabolic processes to provide energy.
Insufficient production of insulin may cause diabetes. Increased blood sugar
level is one of the most common symptoms of diabetes. Insulin plays a major
role in controlling the blood glucose levels.
Insulin is available in
various forms to improve the ease and accuracy of administration. They may
Insulin is characterized
by onset, peak and duration of action.
- Insulin pens
- Insulin jet injectors
- Insulin pumps
There are different
types of insulin based on how quickly it reaches the bloodstream.
Types of Insulin
Rapidly Acting Insulin
- They may
act within few minutes (1-2 minutes) of the injection.
lispro, insulin aspart
- The onset
of action is within 30 minutes of injection.
Example: Regular insulin
- It may act within 2-5 hours of injection and may reach the peak at 8-10
Protamine Hagedorn (NPH)
- This type
of insulin may last for more than 24 hours.
glargine, Insulin detemir
- Krystel El Hage, Vijay Pandyarajan, Nelson B.
Phillips, Brian J. Smith, John G. Menting, Jonathan Whittaker, Michael C.
Lawrence, Markus Meuwly, Michael A. Weiss. Extending Halogen-Based
Medicinal Chemistry to Proteins: Iodo-Insulin as a Case Study. Journal
of Biological Chemistry (2016), DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M116.761015
- Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United
States - (https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf)
- Types of Insulin - (http://www.boomer-itis.org/types_of_insulin.html)
- Insulin Basics - (http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/medication/insulin/insulin-basics.html)
- What Does Insulin Do? - (http://www.hormone.org/hormones-and-health/what-do-hormones-do/insulin)