About My Health Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

Genes Linked to Developmental Defects of Canine Enamel Discovered

by Colleen Fleiss on April 27, 2019 at 10:09 AM
Font : A-A+

Genes Linked to Developmental Defects of Canine Enamel Discovered

Canine enamel disorders similar to those found in humans are linked to ENAM and ACP4, two genes previously described in humans, revealed new study. In addition to humans, hereditary disorders of enamel development occur in dogs, greatly impacting their dental health and wellbeing.

The enamel that covers teeth is the hardest structure in the entire body. Its development is a complex process, and related developmental disorders may result in low enamel quantity, its absence or structural weakness. Alongside aesthetic issues, enamel defects have an impact on dental health and general wellbeing. Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a group of hereditary developmental disorders affecting enamel, with more than ten associated genes reported in humans.

Advertisement


AI causes a significant wellbeing problem for dogs as well, yet the diseases, poorly known in canine medicine, often remain undiagnosed. Canine AI has earlier been linked with the ENAM and SLC24A4 genes in two breeds. In a recent study conducted at the University of Helsinki, two novel recessively inherited enamel disorders were described in dogs, and associated with causative variants in ENAM and ACP4. The identified genes have previously been linked with hereditary enamel development defects also in humans.

"We have observed enamel defects in several breeds. In this study, we found new gene variants in the ENAM gene of Parson Russell Terriers and the ACP4 gene of Akitas and American Akitas. The ACP4 finding was of particular interest, as its role in the development of tooth enamel is not well known, and there are no previous descriptions for any animal models," says Marjo Hytönen, PhD, the first author of the study.
Advertisement

ENAM codes for enamelin, the key enamel protein, and is significant for achieving the correct enamel thickness during tooth development. A considerable part of human AI disorders are associated with mutations in the ENAM gene, whereas ACP4 codes for the phosphatase enzyme, whose specific significance to tooth and enamel development is currently unclear, but which may influence cellular differentiation and mineralisation. Dogs with an ACP4 mutation expressed thinning of the enamel and a slight mineralisation disorder.

Unlike mice, dogs have primary and permanent teeth just as humans, and the number of teeth is also similar. Therefore, dogs serve as an excellent model for human dental diseases.

"The spontaneous enamel defects found in this study resemble earlier descriptions of human patients, and are also linked with the same genes. This is important for the development of early and improved therapies," explains Professor Hannes Lohi, director of the research group.

Earlier, the group discovered a mutation in the FAM20C gene, impacting tooth hypomineralisation. Gene mapping will continue on various dental diseases in different breeds, including a publication which is currently being prepared on an unknown AI gene.

Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
News Category
What's New on Medindia
Ways to Manage Stress during COVID-19 Pandemic
Can Adjusting Fatty Acid Intake Improve Mood in Bipolar Disorder Patients?
Insulin Resistance Doubles the Risk of Major Depressive Disorder
View all

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
Quiz on Dental Care Weaver Syndrome Disorders Included in Newborn Screening 

Recommended Reading
Fluorosis
Fluorosis is a condition caused due to higher fluoride levels in your body. It affects the teeth by ...
Chemical Pollutants in the Home Can Affect Fertility in Both Men and Dogs
Chemical pollutants found in the home can significantly affect male fertility in both humans and ......
Medical Detection Dogs Benefit Diabetes Patients
Alert dogs can help Type 1 patients regulate their blood sugars in a non-invasive way and avoid the ...
No Link Between Allergy Friendly Dogs and Lower Childhood Asthma Risk Identified
Growing up with 'hypoallergenic' dogs is not associated with a lower risk of childhood asthma, ......
Disorders Included in Newborn Screening
Disorders included in newborn screening in US and India are discussed. Most disorders are either inh...
Weaver Syndrome
Weaver syndrome is a genetic disorder in which children show accelerated bone growth, advanced bone ...

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2021

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use