Development of microbiome-based biomarkers could help mitigate the risk of certain cancers such as estrogen driven-breast cancers, according to a review paper published in the JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Residential microbes, such as bacteria and viruses, are known to play important roles in health and disease. The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract contains over 1,000 bacterial cells per gram of luminal content, and is known to help protect humans from developing disease. However, the function of the GI tract can become volatile, and thus may contribute to the development of disease.
Gut microbes can influence systemic estrogen levels as they contain enzymes such as glucuronidase which render estrogens reabsorbable. Therefore, modulation of the estrobolome may be helpful in protecting the body from disease and could help lower the risk of getting cancer.
The researchers believe that, "If the estrogen metabolism-gut microbiome axis is functional with underlying individual variations in estrogen levels, it is plausible that the estrobolome could contribute to the risk of hormone-driven malignancies including breast cancer and as such could serve as a potential biomarker," adding that "interventions that may include use of prebiotics, probiotics, or antimicrobial agents could be designed specifically to target gut bacterial species with b-glucuronidase activity to decrease estrogen-related cancer risk or become components of future therapies.
In conclusion, links between the microbiome and estrogen-driven breast cancer are growing, and we hope that research will identify specific characteristics of the gut microbiome that can be used to develop novel approaches for breast cancer risk assessment, prevention, and treatment."