About My Health Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

Delirium in the ICU Can Cause Long-Term Cognitive Decline

by Julia Samuel on February 27, 2018 at 4:28 PM
Font : A-A+

Delirium in the ICU Can Cause Long-Term Cognitive Decline

Patients who experience long periods delirium - hypoxic, septic or sedative-associated, or a combination of the three, during an intensive care unit (ICU) stay are more likely to have long-term cognitive impairment. This may occur one year after discharge from the hospital, according to a new study from the University of Pittsburgh and Vanderbilt University.

This is the first study to show more than half of patients with acute respiratory failure or shock, or both, develop multiple sub-categories of delirium with lasting effects.

Advertisement


Clinicians should seek to minimize the duration of exposure of the three delirium groups. "Our findings show patients who are exposed to sedative-associated delirium are at similar risk for long-term cognitive impairment as patients exposed to hypoxic or septic delirium," said lead author Timothy Girard, M.D., M.S.C.I., associate professor of critical care medicine, Pitt School of Medicine.

"We were surprised by this because, previously, clinicians believed that sedatives had short-term effects, which were eliminated once the patient regained consciousness. But our results show that clinicians should see it as a red flag when ICU patients respond to sedatives in an adverse manner."
Advertisement

Sepsis is a condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs, and hypoxia is a lack of oxygen reaching the body's tissues. Doctors often sedate ICU patients to help them relax and manage pain. All three conditions--sepsis, hypoxia and sedation--are common during critical illness and can cause delirium.

Delirium was common in the study, affecting 71 percent of participants. Sedative-associated delirium, the most common subcategory, is of particular interest since clinicians control patients' exposure to sedatives. Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function. It often varies in severity over a short period of time, and includes attentional deficits, and disorganization of behavior. It typically involves other cognitive deficits, changes in arousal (hyperactive, hypoactive, or mixed), perceptual deficits, altered sleep-wake cycle, and psychotic features such as hallucinations and delusions.

Researchers examined more than 1,000 adult medical/surgical patients across five centers with respiratory failure or shock, or both, for hypoxic, septic and sedative-associated delirium, as well as a fourth category, metabolic delirium, which can occur when patients have changes in metabolism due to kidney or liver failure. Researchers assessed 564 patients at a three-month follow-up, and 471 at a one-year follow-up.

The study found duration of delirium as a key indicator of cognitive decline, with longer periods of multiple delirium subcategories predicting worse cognitive decline after one year of hospital discharge.

Out of the four phenotypes, metabolic delirium was the only one that didn't affect long-term cognitive decline, after adjusting for age, severity of illness, doses of sedating medications and other factors.

"Clinicians should be careful not to underestimate the importance of delirium in sedated patients," Girard said. "We recommend that clinicians focus on reducing delirium risk factors, including sedation, in addition to treating the critical illness that brought the patient to the ICU."

Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
News Category
What's New on Medindia
First-Ever Successful Pig-To-Human Kidney Transplantation
World Osteoporosis Day 2021 -
Spirituality and Mental Health
View all

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness (ICUAW) ICU Delirium 

Recommended Reading
Delirium
Delirium is a sudden disturbance in mental function that causes confusion and decreased awareness .....
ICU Delirium
ICU delirium is the most dreaded and least diagnosed complication of an illness which requires ......
Delirium Could Pave Way for Late Life Dementia
Delirium in the presence of the pathological processes of dementia is associated with accelerated .....
Decreased Consciousness
Consciousness can be decreased to various degrees and result in conditions like delirium, stupor, .....
Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness (ICUAW)
Intensive Care Unit Acquired Weakness (ICUAW) affects critically ill patients on prolonged ICU stay,...

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2021

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use