"Although it may affect people at different times throughout the day, reducing or satisfying those hunger pains is a common concern for those either trying to lose weight or maintain a certain weight," said the study's author, Linda Milo Ohr.
"Satiety, or the feeling of being full, is a hot topic addressed by the food industry in recent years," added Milo Ohr.
Satiety-increasing foods include:
Whole grains, such as oats, barley, rye and corn. According to the research, the high-volume, low-energy density and the relatively lower palatability of whole-grain foods may promote satiation.
Fiber, such as resistant starch and oligosaccharides. Resistant starch escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals and delivers the benefits of both soluble and insoluble fiber. The research found that the quantity of resistant starch in foods correlates with blood glucose response and reduced food intake after two hours. Oligosaccharides are complex carbohydrates that are found in beans and legumes, and they help maintain stable blood glucose levels when eaten as part of a meal. Like resistant starch, they are not digested by the small intestine and end up being metabolized and expelled from the large intestine.
Protein. The author cited a study by Solae of St. Louis that found consumers understand the important role protein plays in helping to manage hunger, and they are interested in protein-enhanced versions of everyday foods such as soup, yogurt and breakfast cereal. Protein choices for satiety include soy, which animal studies have shown stimulates the release of cholecystokinin (CCK), a hormone that plays a role in appetite suppression; whey, which stimulates several gastrointestinal hormones that are thought to regulate appetite control in the brain;
egg, which provides protein in the form of readily available, essential amino acids; and potato protein extract, which has shown promise for optimal satiety by enabling the release of CCK.
Almonds. An ounce of almonds contains 6 grams of protein and are often suggested as snacks by popular weight loss programs because of their role in satiety.
The research has been published in the April issue of the Food Technology magazine.