Approximately one in five adults in the United States experiences mental illness in a given year. Brain injuries, including concussions in childhood, can increase the risk of mental illness, poor school attainment as well as premature death, revealed a study.
The findings showed that people who had experienced a single mild, moderate or severe brain injury during childhood were at twice the risk of being admitted to hospital as a mental health inpatient (an increase in absolute risk from 5% to 10%).
They were 50% more likely to use a mental health service (increase from 14% to 20%) than unaffected people in the same age group.
"The study found that a childhood brain injury increased the chances of all these things. More serious brain injuries and repeated brain injuries made them even more likely," said lead author Seena Fazel, professor at Oxford University.
Further, they were 80% more likely to receive disability benefits (increase from 4% to 6%) and 70% more likely to die before the age of 41 (increase from 0.8% to 1.6%).
People who had experienced repeated mild, moderate or severe brain injury were over two-and-a-half times more likely to receive disability benefits than contemporaries who had experienced a single-episode injury (increase from 6% to 12%).
In addition, there were also 60% more likely to have done poorly at school (increase from 9% to 14%) or be in receipt of welfare benefits (increase from 12% to 19%).
"Our study indicates far-reaching and long-term consequences of head injury. It reinforces what we knew already - that prevention is key," Fazel said.
"Existing work to prevent head injuries to young people in sports, for example, needs to be enhanced. Long-term follow up could identify negative effects so that early intervention can prevent a drift into low attainment, unemployment and mental illness," Fazel suggested in the paper published in the journal PLOS Medicine.
For the study, the international team of researchers, analyzed data from more than a million Swedes born between 1973 and 1985 to examine the long-term impact of having a traumatic brain injury before the age of 25.
The study looked at low educational attainment, instances of psychiatric care, receiving welfare and disability benefit and early death in the participants.
The team compared people who had experienced brain injury to unaffected people in their same age group, and also to their brothers and sisters who had not been injured.