About Careers Internship MedBlogs Contact us
Medindia LOGIN REGISTER
Advertisement

Cancer Cells Will Become Vulnerable, Reveals Study

by Colleen Fleiss on July 17, 2019 at 4:29 AM
Font : A-A+

Cancer Cells Will Become Vulnerable, Reveals Study

Using machine learning HSE University researchers have discovered the two most widespread DNA structures - stem-loops and quadruplexes - cause genome mutations that lead to cancer. The results of the study were published in BMC Cancer.

In the early 2000s, researchers invented a new method to obtain the nucleotide sequence of DNA and RNA - Next-Generation Sequencing, NGS. This technology allows reading simultaneously several million genome regions, which had been impossible with earlier sequencing methods. Now, the human genome (genetic information) can be recorded in a text file weighing about 3.2 Gb.

Advertisement


'Cancer is a genome disease,' explains Maria Poptsova, Head of the HSE Laboratory of Bioinformatics and one of the study's authors, 'When we sequence the genome in a tumour tissue, we see a spectrum of different mutations. There may be point or large-scale mutations. For example, in point mutations, one nucleotide disappears and is replaced by another. We looked at large-scale mutations where parts of the genome (from several to millions of nucleotides) were deleted, reversed, copied, and inserted in a different place. As a result of these rearrangements, genome breakpoints appear.

HSE University researchers investigated the influence of two types of DNA secondary structures - stem-loops and quadruplexes - on genome breakpoints, with the use of machine learning. The authors analysed half a million breakpoints in over 2,000 genomes of ten types of cancer. Researchers looked for genomic hotspots, considering breakpoint hotspots to be the regions with frequent and recurrent rearrangements - in other words, risk zones. It appeared that the stem-loop-based model best explains blood, brain, liver, and prostate cancer breakpoint hotspot profiles, while quadruplex-based model has higher performance for bone, breast, ovary, pancreatic, and skin cancer.
Advertisement

The appearance of breakpoints cannot be explained exclusively by the impact of DNA secondary structures, but their contribution is at least 20-30%. The analysis demonstrates that the impact of stem-loops and quadruplexes on breakpoint evolution depends on the type of tissue, which is determined by epigenetic factors.

'These are the kind of markers that distinguish different kinds of tissues over the genome,' said Maria Poptsova. 'We are actively studying the correlation between secondary DNA structures and epigenetic marks. English researchers have already looked at the impact of DNA secondary structures and epigenetic marks on point mutations. We focused on breakpoint hotspots and are the first to determine the contribution of the two most widespread genome structures - stem-loops and quadruplexes.'

According to the study's authors, in the future, quadruplexes may be used as therapeutic targets. If drug therapy makes them more stable, the telomerase enzyme won't be able to work in cancer cells, and they will become vulnerable.

Source: Eurekalert
Advertisement

Advertisement
News A-Z
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
What's New on Medindia
Monkeypox Outbreak: What it is, How Does it Spread & the Prevention
Seasonal Allergy Medications
How to Choose the Best Eczema-Friendly Moisturizer for Children?
View all
Recommended Reading
News Archive
Date
Category
Advertisement
News Category

Medindia Newsletters Subscribe to our Free Newsletters!
Terms & Conditions and Privacy Policy.

More News on:
Cancer and Homeopathy Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Colorectal Cancer Cancer Facts Cancer Tattoos A Body Art Common Lifestyle Habits that Cause Diseases Health Benefits of Dandelion Plant Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Cancer Treatment Non-Communicable Diseases 

Most Popular on Medindia

Iron Intake Calculator Pregnancy Confirmation Calculator Vent Forte (Theophylline) Drug - Food Interactions Loram (2 mg) (Lorazepam) Diaphragmatic Hernia Hearing Loss Calculator Blood Pressure Calculator Drug Side Effects Calculator Turmeric Powder - Health Benefits, Uses & Side Effects

Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only. The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer

© All Rights Reserved 1997 - 2022

This site uses cookies to deliver our services. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Use