In order to find out if MIS levels were linked with breast cancer risk, Dr. Joanne F. Dorgan, of the Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, and colleagues conducted a prospective case-control study of 309 participants who were registered in the Columbia, Missouri Serum Bank.
The researchers collected blood samples from women with in situ or invasive breast cancer who, at the time of donation, were free of cancer.
Each of 105 breast cancer patients was matched to two control subjects.
MIS was measured in serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Researchers found that increasing MIS serum concentrations were associated with increased breast cancer risk in this population.
"Additional research is needed, including confirmatory epidemiological studies on the association of serum MIS with breast cancer and studies aimed at identifying the biological mechanism underlying the association," wrote the authors.