The molecular mechanism behind the fact that chronic pain is associated with worsening of health and shorter lifespan has not yet been understood. A study published by Cell Press May 22nd in the journal Cell reveals that the activity of a pain receptor called TRPV1 regulates lifespan and metabolic health in mice. The study suggests that pain perception can affect the aging process and reveals novel strategies that could improve metabolic health and longevity in humans.
"The TRPV1 receptor is a major drug target with many known drugs in the clinic that can affect its function," says senior study author Andrew Dillin of the University of California, Berkeley. "Finding that manipulation of this receptor can not only promote a youthful metabolism but also increase lifespan should be highly significant for age-related maladies, diabetes being a major one."
Past research has shown that mice lacking TRPV1 are protected against diet-induced obesity, suggesting that this receptor plays a role in metabolism. Intriguingly, diets rich in capsaicin—the active molecule of chili peppers that can overstimulate and kill TRPV1 neurons—have long been linked to lower incidents of diabetes and metabolic problems in humans. Moreover, disruption of sensory perception increases longevity in worms and flies. But until now, it was not known whether sensory perception also affects aging in mammals.
Moreover, old mice treated with a compound that inhibits the activity of CGRP receptors showed a more youthful metabolic profile than untreated old mice. "Our findings suggest that pharmacological manipulation of TRPV1 and CGRP may improve metabolic health and longevity," Dillin says. "Alternatively, chronic ingestion of compounds that affect TRPV1 such as capsaicin might help prevent metabolic decline with age and lead to increased longevity in humans."