More than a couple of eggs a week could mean risking diabetes.
It can also make the condition worse in those who already have diabetes.
The study, by researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the Harvard Medical School in Boston, looked at the egg consumption habits of almost 57,000 men and women over an 11- to 20-year period.
Women were most susceptible, with females consuming seven eggs or more a week increasing their risk by 77 per cent.
Eating just one egg a week carried no increased risk, Dr Michael Dr Gaziano wrote.
Dr Alan Barclay, manager of human nutrition at Diabetes Australia-New South Wales, said the results were consistent with the advice it has provided for some years that people with diabetes should have moderate egg consumption.
Eggs are a good source of vitamins, proteins and other nutrients, but they are also rich in cholesterol, which in high amounts can clog arteries and raise the risk of heart attack, stroke and diabetes.