Experts warn that the new threat is far less obvious than the visible levels of smog of the early 20th century. Although, they are not seen to the naked eye, tiny particles of pollutants known as particulate matter can be deadly.
According to professor Frank Kelly of the Environmental Research Group at King's College London, nearly 30,000 people died from air pollution in Britain in 2008
"We have this new problem that we cannot see: it is tiny particles of nitrogen dioxide," The Independent quoted him as saying.
"If we consider the air pollution component ... then probably those individuals are losing on average three years of their life."
Considering the harrowing situation, it is not surprising that the lives of 187,000 people who die from heart disease have been shortened because of air pollution.
"It's a scandal that the same number of people are dying of air pollution in London now as back in the 1950s. The Government needs to step in," said Joan Walley MP, EAC chair.
As this week marks 55 years since the 1956 Clean Air Act, campaigners claim that action on a similar scale is needed once more.