Aging process with an intellectual disability is affecting the physical and mental health of people aged 40 and above, reveals a new study.
Increased rates of important health screenings and access to GPs amongst people with an intellectual disability have been highlighted in a new report. These health gains, however, are potentially being offset by poorly managed chronic health problems and emerging social isolation issues amongst the same population.
The report was conducted by The Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA) by academics from Trinity College Dublin.
The report marks 10 years since the inception of IDS-TILDA, which is the first study of its kind in Europe and the only one in the world with the ability to compare the ageing of people with intellectual disability directly with the general ageing population. The launch of the report marked the United Nations' International Day of Disabled Persons.
Physical and Mental Health
The report found that almost half of participants rated their health as excellent/very good and over three-quarters of participants were either satisfied or extremely satisfied with life. As well as continued high levels of access to GPs and other health care professionals, uptake of screenings for dementia, prostate cancer, cholesterol, and breast cancer now match or, in some cases, exceed that of the general population.
However, significant challenges highlighted in this report include increased levels of chronic conditions that are not always being well managed. Overall, 28.3% of participants reported that they had no teeth at all, and 67.8% of participants with total tooth loss did not receive prosthetic dentures. This compares to only 5.3% of the general population who did not receive dentures.
Chronic constipation rose from 17% in Wave 1 to 43% in Wave 3, placing people with an intellectual disability at increasing risk for pain, delirium, high levels of laxative use, and even death. Dementia continues to be very high for people with Down syndrome. Despite this, 47% of those with Down syndrome and without a diagnosis of dementia had never had any dementia assessment. This is of significant concern as the mean age of onset of dementia for people with Down syndrome within IDS-TILDA is 52 years of age.
Lead author and principal investigator for the Irish Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA), Professor Mary McCarron said: "People with an intellectual disability deserve the same attention as the rest of the population when it comes to how we plan, deliver and evaluate services. It's heartening to see the increased uptake of some screenings. However, significant differences in the prevalence of such chronic health conditions between the general population and people with an intellectual disability highlights the need for targeted health intervention programmes for oral health, bowel health, brain health, medication management and preventative care."
The report also highlighted serious social isolation issues faced by people with an intellectual disability that run contrary to the ideas underpinning the decongregration policy introduced by Government six years ago. Key issues included a decrease in the rate of individuals moving to community-based settings (11.4 % in Wave 3 compared to 26.7% at Wave 2) and increased numbers of older people with an intellectual disability living further away from family compared to Wave 2.
The report also highlighted a continued reliance of older people with an intellectual disability on siblings and their families. Respondents continued to have the highest rates of frequent contacts with their mothers and fathers, but fewer still had living parents and this trend will inevitably continue as they age. A concern, according to the report authors, is that many older people with an intellectual disability lose the people with whom they have their most frequent social contacts, and this may have knock-on effects on their social participation more broadly and overall quality of life, while also raising questions about long-term living arrangements.
The report also found that a large majority of those living in institutional settings reported co-resident friends but fewer than half had any non-resident friends. This compares to a large majority of respondents living independently or with family who reported friendships outside their home. In addition, while the rate of participating in social and leisure activities had increased from Wave 1, the proportion of respondents who did these activities in their local community actually decreased. The report found little change in the use of technology and social media to enhance the social and community participation of older people with intellectual disability.
Professor McCarron continued: "We are all working hard to increase community-based moves and to improve social connectedness, but the Wave 3 report has highlighted that movement over time is more likely to be about movement to settings with more supports, largely due to changing health needs. This raises two questions: what additional community supports are needed so that people with an intellectual disability may age in place and how can we better manage chronic conditions, especially in community settings?"
"Our findings are critical for the proper planning of services as we seek to realise the fullest lives possible for people with an intellectual disability and to support people living within their communities for longer. Unless we address some of the challenges outlined in this report, people living with an intellectual disability will continue to age in poor health."
Minister of State for Disability Issues, Finian McGrath, added: "The work being carried out by IDS-TILDA is providing evidence to inform education, practice and policy, to address challenges, and to enhance the lived experiences of people with an intellectual disability as they age. Ultimately, this research is changing the delivery of care for people with an intellectual disability and building a dynamic new generation of researchers and practitioners who are investigating the complex nature of ageing for people with an intellectual disability. Importantly, people with an intellectual disability are involved in informing research questions and delivering training. I am a strong advocate of people with intellectual disabilities being afforded the opportunity to manage their own lives where possible and I witness this happening on a daily basis with great pleasure. This is something that I want us to celebrate proudly as we recognise the International Day of Disabled Persons."
Among surviving participants, the Wave 3 response rate was 95.5%, a rate rarely reported in longitudinal studies, and is indicative of the level of sustained engagement between re-searchers, participants, family members, carers and the entire intellectual disability community.