Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 - Prevention and Early Detection of Disabilities

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Prevention and Early Detection of Disabilities

      Within the limits of their economic capacity and development, the appropriate Governments and the local authorities, with a view to preventing the occurrence of disabilities, shall -

   1. undertake or cause to be undertaken surveys, investigations and research concerning the cause of occurrence of disabilities;

   2. promote various methods of preventing disabilities;

   3. screen all the children at least once in a year for the purpose of identifying "at-risk" cases;

   4. provide facilities for training to the staff at the primary health centres;

  5. sponsor or cause to be sponsored awareness campaigns and disseminate or cause to be disseminated information for general hygiene, health and sanitation;

   6. take measures for pre-natal, perinatal and post-natal care of mother and child;

   7. educate the public through the pre-schools, primary health centres, village level workers and anganwadi workers;

   8. create awareness amongst the masses through television, radio and other mass media on the causes of disabilities and the preventive measures to be adopted.

Education - The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall -

   1. ensure that every child with a disability has access to free education in an appropriate environment till he attains the age of eighteen years;

   2. endeavour to promote the integration of students with disabilities in the normal schools;

   3. promote setting up of special schools in Government and private sector for those in need of special education, in such a manner that children with disabilities living in any part of the country have access to such schools;

   4. endeavour to equip the special schools for children with disabilities with vocational training facilities.

The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall by notification make schemes for -

   1. conducting part-time classes in respect of children with disabilities who having completed education up to class fifth and could not continue their studies on a whole-time basis;

   2. conducting special part-time classes for providing functional literacy for children in the age group of sixteen and above;

   3. imparting non-formal education by utilizing the available manpower in rural areas after giving them appropriate orientation;

   4. imparting education through open schools or open universities;

   5. conducting class and discussions through interactive electronic or other media;

   6. providing every child with disability free of cost special books and equipments needed for his education.

     The appropriate Governments shall initiate or cause to be initiated research by official and non-governmental agencies for the purpose of designing and developing new assistive devices, teaching aids, special teaching materials or such other items as are necessary to give a child with disability equal opportunities in education.

    The appropriate Governments shall set up adequate number of teachers' training institutions and assist the national institutes and other voluntary organisations to develop teachers' training programmes specialising in disabilities so that requisite trained manpower is available for special schools and integrated schools for children with disabilities.

     Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions, the appropriate Governments shall by notification prepare a comprehensive education scheme which shall make provision for -

   1. transport facilities to the children with disabilities or in the alternative financial incentives to parents or guardians to enable their children with disabilities to attend schools;

   2. the removal of architectural barriers from schools, colleges or other institutions imparting vocational and professional training;

   3. the supply of books, uniforms and other materials to children with disabilities attending school;

   4. the grant of scholarship to students with disabilities;

   5. setting up of appropriate fora for the redressal of grievances of parents regarding the placement of their children with disabilities;

   6. suitable modification in the examination system to eliminate purely mathematical questions for the benefit of blind students and students with low vision;

   7. restructuring of curriculum for the benefit of children with disabilities;

   8. restructuring the curriculum for benefit of students with hearing impairment to facilitate them to take only one language as part of their curriculum.

   All educational institutions shall provide or cause to be provided amanuensis to blind students and students with or low vision.

Employment - Appropriate Governments shall -

   1. identify posts, in the establishments, which can be reserved for the persons with disability;

   2. at periodical intervals not exceeding three years, review the list of posts identified and up-date the list taking into consideration the developments in technology.

   Every appropriate Government shall appoint in every establishment such percentage of vacancies not less than three per cent for persons or class of persons with disability of which one per cent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from -

   1. blindness or low vision;
   2. hearing impairment;
   3. locomotor disability or cerebral palsy, in the posts identified for each disability: Provided, that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment, by notification subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section.

       (1) The appropriate Government may, by notification, require that from such date as may be specified, by notification, the employer in every establishment shall furnish such information or return as may be prescribed in relation to vacancies appointed for persons with disability that have occurred or are about to occur in that establishment to such Special Employment Exchange as may be prescribed and the establishment shall thereupon comply with such requisition.

      (2) The form in which and the intervals of time for which information or returns shall be furnished and the particulars, they shall contain shall be such as may be prescribed.

           Any person authorised by the Special Employment Exchange in writing, shall have access to any relevant record or document in the possession of any establishment and may enter at any reasonable time and premises where he believes such record or document to be, and inspect or take copies of relevant records or documents or ask any question necessary for obtaining any information.

          Where in any recruitment year any vacancy under section 33, cannot be filled up due to non-availability of a suitable person with disability or, for any other sufficient reason, such vacancy shall be carried forward in the succeeding recruitment year and if in the succeeding recruitment year also suitable person with disability is not available, it may first be filled by interchange among the three categories and only when there is no person with disability available for the post in that year, the employer shall fill up the vacancy by appointment of a person, other than a person with disability: Provided that if the nature of vacancies in an establishment is such that a given category of person can not be employed, the vacancies may be interchanged among the three categories with the prior approval of the appropriate Government.

  • Every employer shall maintain such record in relation to the person with disability employed in his establishment in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by the appropriate government.
  • The records maintained under sub-section (1) shall be open to inspection at all reasonable hours by such persons as may be authorised in this behalf by general or special order by the appropriate Government.

            (1) The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall by notification formulate schemes for ensuring employment of persons with disabilities, and such schemes may provide:

    i.     the training and welfare of persons with disabilities;
    ii.    the relaxation of upper age limit;
    iii.    regulating the employment;
   iv.  health and safety measures and creation of a non-handicapping environment in places where persons with disabilities are employed;
    v.    the manner in which and the persons by whom the cost of operating the schemes is to be defrayed; and
   vi.    constituting the authority responsible for the administration of the scheme.

     All Government educational institutions and other educational institutions receiving aid from the Government, shall reserve not less than three per cent seats for persons with disabilities.

    The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall reserve not less than three per cent in all poverty alleviation schemes for the benefit of persons with disabilities.

    The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide incentives to employers both in public and private sectors to ensure that at least five per cent of their work force is composed of persons with disabilities.


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rajinderpal, India

myself is patient of multiple sclerosis and serving in life insurance corporation of india .is there any provision of regular income if i turns helpless due to this disabling disease ?

pkchoudhary, India

We Approach Autism Society a self help group of parents of children with autism at 89, Patel Nagar, Gopalpura bye pass,Jaipur (Rajasthan) wants to enrol/ registered our society under PWD act. Please guide us. Thanks.

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