Consumer Protection Act and Medical Profession - The Legal Avenues Other Than CPA

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a) Medical Council of India and Dental Council of India.

b) Civil Courts.

c) MRTP (Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission)

d) Public Interest Litigation.

e) Sections of Indian Penal Code, 1860

Regulation of The Practice of Medicine

a) Indian Medical Council Act,1956

  • India (MCI) and the State Medical Councils.

  • Authorizes the Medical Council of India (MCI) to recognize the medical qualifications granted by any Authority or Institution of India or other countries.

  • Authorized the MCI to maintain a register of medical practitioners to be known as the Indian Medical register, which consists of the entries of all the State Registers of medical practitioners.

  • Empowers the State Medical Councils to punish persons who falsely claim to be registered or misuse titles and when medicine is practiced by unregistered persons, with fine or imprisonment or both.

  • Authorizes the MCI to prescribe standards of professional conduct and etiquette or Code of Ethics for medical practitioners. The violations of these standards constitute infamous conduct (professional misconduct).

State Medical Councils are empowered to take disciplinary action when prescribed standards of professionals conduct and etiquette or Code of Ethics are not observed by the doctors and violations of which constitute professional misconduct / Infamous conduct.

Under the following circumstances, a doctor can be temporarily or permanently debarred from practicing medicine.

  • Improper or indecent conduct towards the patient

  • Conviction in a Court of Law

  • certificates, reports and other documents

  • Contravening the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940

  • Selling scheduled poison

  • Performing or abetting an illegal operation

  • Receiving or giving commission or using touts

  • Employing unqualified persons

  • Associations with (drug) manufacturing firms

  • Advertisements

  • Running shops (dispensing chemists) etc.

  • Failure to give professional service for certain things on religious grounds.

An aggrieved patient can complain to the Rights and Privileges of Registered Medical Practitioners Conferred by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956.

Civil Courts

The aggrieved patients can file a case against the doctor for monetary compensation for which the patient to pay court fees that depends upon the compensation sought.

Probably, due to near acceptance of medical negligence as inevitable by the patients and their relatives or local settlements, not many cases have reached the apex court of law in the past.

The legal remedies are based on the law of Torts, Section 1-A of the Fatal Accidents Act, 185536 and the Section 357 of Cr. P.C., 197337. But to avail it, an aggrieved patient have to wait for years and spend considerable amount of money on litigations.

The civil court cases take care the route of Sub-Court, District Court, High Court and Supreme Court.


An aggrieved patient can directly approach the High Court or the Supreme Court when his/her grievances was not properly redressed. PILs are usually resorted when public health programmes are not implemented properly. Some of the landmark judgements on Supreme Court on health are the result of PILs.

Foot Notes

This has adopted the provisions of English Fatal Accidents Act of 1846 (re-enacted in 1976) with a little modification. This Act aims of providing compensation to the family of the deceased for loss occasioned by the death of a person caused by the actionable wrong. In fact, it does not specify its application to medical negligence cases but it is of wide import so as to apply to all such cases including road traffic accident cases. In Dr. Laxman Balkrishna Joshi v Dr. Trimbak Bapu Godhole and An0ther (AIR 1969 SC 128) and Amalgamated Coal Field Ltd. v Mst. (Chhotibai & Others (1973) ACJ 365), this Act was used to award damages to the heirs of the deceased patients.

Section 357 of Code of Criminal Procedure 4973 (Act No. 2 of 1974)

In the payment to any person of compensation for any loss or injury caused by the offence, when compensation is, in the opinion of the court recoverable by such person in a civil court;



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Kapil999, India

I was appointed to run a clinic from a hospital facility. The management one day suddenly closed the premises, with all my belongings trapped inside, without giving me any notice. The treatment of many patients was under way and they feel lost. I have complained to police for cognizable offences and also written to the state medical bodies highlighting the manner in which the premises was shut down in my absence. Are any clauses of medical act violated in this sudden and unannounced closure of a medical facility? Dr K G

Rajeev2009, India

I have booked two tickets under PNR no. 4408538575, for travelling from bangalore to delhi by 12213 duranto express on 27-06-2015. But on 23-06-2015 i have received a message regarding cancellation of train, then i called railway enquiry no. 139 in this regard and they told that train cancellation can only be confirmed on 27-06-2015 morning and also advised that i have not to cancel the ticket now but after departure time of the train i have to file the TDR online through irctc website. But when i open the site next day the ticket cancellation option said that it is too late too be cancelled and TDR option said that TDR can only be filled after charting and departure. So I could not cancel my tickets and contact the irctc helpline 011- 39340000 and they told to send an email in this regard on and they issue me a Ticket No. 1686501, But they also refused the return on 12/07/2015 by saying that I have filled the TDR very late on 03/07/2015, which had to be filled within 72 hours of train departure time. As I have said earlier wihen I make cancellation of ticket irctc website refuse it and when I file TDR irctc site told that TDR can only be file after charting done and departure of train, no other method is describe there. The method of sending email is only come to know by me when I contacted irctc helpline. This is duty of Railway and Irctc to let the passenger know about the refund procedure in case of cancellation of train. So I want back all my money which is Rs.5636.17/- as train is cancelled by railway itself.

abhi0786, India

I need suggestion regarding the doctors bill. Doctor is giving me bill for 17000 for 3 day for my wife's treatment. She was not admitted to the clinic, just for three days doctor given her 2 bottle of saline everyday. Doctor is having clinic not the hospital. Can you suggest what can i do?

chit123, India

I want to complain against shiv medicos in H block ashok vihar for not giving proper bills for medicines purchased and also not verifying or asking for any prescription and seselling medicines without prescriptions...


This letter is with reference to the wrong or unwanted medical procedure and hiding the truth regarding my health. Dr. S.Selvamani, Senior Consultant and Interventional cardiologist [ Reg. No: 36009] done procedures like TPI CAG Successful PTCA with BVS (Bio Resorbable Vascular Scaffold) to RCA done on 18-19-2013. I was discharged on 28/09/2013 with the discharge summary as General Condition is GOOD and I thought that I had a single vessel block and that it was cleared by PTCA method and I can continue a normal life. After Discharge,( since the hospital is around 250 Km away from my home town ) I went to another cardiologist in my home town , He took ECHO and stated the extra points like Dialated LA/LV , Grade 3 Diastolic Dysfunction , Moderate PAH , Sclerotic aortic value and minimal effusion behind inferolateral wall , moderate to severe MR, posteriorly directed wall hugging jet ( MR dp/dt 982) and the Global EF is 33 % although Meenakshi Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Madurai took ECHO they didn't reveled the above points in their discharge sheet and the cardiologist Dr.S.Selvamani ,didn't prescribed the medicines which will improve the EF % . Now I am taking T.Planeb, T.Cardarone and T. Cardace to improve the condition of the heart prescribed by an another cardiologist to improve the pumping capacity of the heart, which was failed by Dr. S. Selvamani. So I suspect that Dr. S. Selvamani didn't diagnosed or gave importance to the pumping capacity of my heart and he did wrong or unwanted procedure like PTCA and temporary pace maker installation. Dr. S. Selvamani, procedures makes me to spend around Rs.4,50,000 ( Rupees Four lacs and fifty Thousand ) at Meenakshi Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Madurai and now I am spending more money on review and other lab and ECHO procedures to improve the EF% of my heart. I strongly believe that I have been treated wrong / unwanted procedures at Meenakshi Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Madurai by Dr. S.Selvamani. I am ready to submit any medical documents and willing to go any more procedures to prove that I had been treated at Meenakshi Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Madurai in unwanted or neglected medical procedures.

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