Selected Infectious Diseases

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Introduction Obtaining information on diseases forms the first step towards prevention and paves the way for a healthier tomorrow. This report contains statistical data provided by WHO on selected infectious diseases such as cholera, influenza and malaria, aiding in decision-making and better health planning.

Need

Globally, infectious diseases place a considerable burden on individuals and health care. Selected evidence-based infectious disease data and interpretation are useful for public health settings.

Importance of Infectious Diseases Data Reporting

  Based on available data, we can distinct the difference between zero cases reported and no information available for a country regarding diseases. Decisions have also been made from these data, which are only providing an indication of the current status of officially reported infectious disease. Since each country is following it’s own method, huge reporting gaps and absence of incidence or prevalence calculation occurred.

  Both epidemiological patterns and data-collection efforts in specific countries should be considered for data interpretation. Malaria and yellow fever are endemic to certain geographical regions but are extremely rare elsewhere. Few diseases are best tackled with preventive measures. Immunization results in vaccine-preventable diseases.

Insufficient Data

  Due to the distance, poor transport facility, undeveloped communication infrastructures and shortage of skilled healthcare workers and laboratory facilities, many countries are still struggling to identify, diagnose and report infectious diseases.

  H5N1 influenza and plague have high mortality rates whereas poliomyelitis and leprosy have low mortality rates. Mandatory reporting is essential because diseases with very small initial case numbers may cause devastating epidemics. To ensure that eradication efforts, case reporting is essential.

Role of Health Organizations

  Diseases reporting, monitoring and controlling are carried out by International Health Regulations, countries and WHO correspondingly. Through WHO programmes, disease prevalence information as well as immunization coverage can be obtained.

Global Data

Member State Number of Reported Cases  
  Cholera 2010 Diphtheria 2010 H5N1 influenza 2011 Japanesse encephalitis 2009 Leprosy 2010 Malaria 2010 Measles 2010 Meningitis 2011 Mumps 2010
Range of Country Values
Minimum 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 126 0
Median 951 0 8 0 32 11 511 14 754 35
Maximum 179 379 3 123 39 5 171 126 800 2 417 780 118 712 5 863 298 932
WHO Region
African Region 109 549       25 345 18 133 811 186 675 22 000  
Region of the Americans 179 588 41     37 740 670 770 208   24 608
South-East Asia Region 8 919 3 750   5 450 156 254 2 440 812 50 265    
European Region   39         30 625   27 013
Eastern Mediterranean Region   154     4 080 2 065 000 10 072    
Western Pacific Region 11 065 153 9 3 016 5 028 261 568 49 460   486 449
Income Group
Low Income 233 210 183     29 610 15 503 339 155 738    
Lower Middle Income 81 507 3 773   5 601 159 452 7 475 588 94 055    
Upper Middle Income 2 769 222 1 2 577 39 065 591 437 68 146   339 191
High Income 33 9     361   9 366   207 772
Global 317 528 4 187   8 468 228 488 23 572 138 327 305   606 166


Member State Number of Reported Cases
  Pertussis 2010 Plague 2011 Poliomyelitis 2011 Congenital rubella Syndrome 2010 Rubella 2010 Neonatal tetanus 2010 Total tetanus 2010 Tuberculosis 2010 Yellow fever 2010
Range of Country Values
Minimum 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Median 9 0 0 0 3 0 2 3 053 0
Maximum 38 493 1 192 16 43 117 1 057 1 822 1 339 866 289
WHO Region
African Region     370   2 754 1 937 4 311 1 380 294 714
Region of the Americans 3 570   0 0 12 22 547 213 851 23
South-East Asia Region 40 891   1     671 3 256 2 123 119  
European Region 26 112   0 2 10 551 2 206 300 355 0
Eastern Mediterranean Region 6 286   281   1 398 1 007 1 034 409 834  
Western Pacific Region 47 477 2 21   45 966 1 286   1 326 291  
Income Group
Low Income 5 866   331   15 370 1 952 4 799 1 210 247  
Lower Middle Income 52 540   320     1 864 5 019 2 654 563  
Upper Middle Income 10 100 1 22   47 872 1 105   1 764 620  
High Income 60 759   0 1 4 786 4 263 124 303 0
Global 129 265   673   76 025 4 925 10 890 5 753 744  
Source: WHO-2012 report

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