Meningococcal Meningitis

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Introduction Meningococcal meningitis is an infection that results in swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.

Outbreak Trends

  Throughout the world meningococcal meningitis occurs in small group with seasonal variation.

  From Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east - sub-Saharan Africa region is known as “meningitis belt”- the reason is disease occurrence is very high in this region.

  The risk of meningococcal disease will increase during dry season (December to June) with dust winds, cold nights and upper respiratory tract infections.

  Due to pilgrimages and traditional markets, population displacements and over crowding are happening that facilitates transmission of this disease.

 

 
Key Facts

  The meningitis belt of sub-Saharan Africa, stretching from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east, has the highest rates of the disease.

  Group A meningococcus accounts for an estimated 80–85% of all cases in the meningitis belt, with epidemics occurring at intervals of 7–14 years.

  Meningococcal A conjugate vaccine, C conjugate vaccines, tetravalent A, C, Y and W135 conjugate vaccines and meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine - are various vaccines to control this disease.

African Meningitis Belt

  This disease affects more than 400 million people living in the African meningitis belt region every year.

  In last 15 years more than 8lack cases were reported out of this 10% resulted in deaths.

  In 2010 during epidemic season the case-fatality ratio (CFR) was 10.6% with 2415 deaths.

  6145 cases were reported by Burkina included 863 deaths that was the highest rate whereas Nigeria comes in next position with 4699 cases including 322 deaths.

 Country

 2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

Algeria

 

 

 

62

 

 

 

Benin

323

416

414

502

316

302

377

Burkina Faso

6732

4723

10401

26878

19134

3626

6252

Burundi

 

 

 

12

47

 

 

Cameroon

835

1001

 

107

35

 

 

Cape Verde

 

 

 

 

102

 

 

Central African Republic

477

289

345

659

223

128

 

Chad

3228

1460

1093

1206

1432

1015

863

Côte d'Ivoire

146

284

1117

760

656

527

464

Democratic Republic of the Congo

8276

4842

6125

9542

6155

8882

13367

Equatorial Guinea

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

Eritrea

 

 

 

15

5

 

 

Ethiopia

5

114

612

36

1109

562

2768

Gabon

 

 

 

34

48

 

 

Gambia

 

 

 

17

18

 

 

Ghana

1164

302

468

816

469

421

1096

Guinea

84

81

263

54

184

 

 

Kenya

 

 

 

122

83

 

 

Lesotho

 

 

 

45

 

 

 

Liberia

 

 

 

23

39

 

 

Mali

482

335

1538

953

1039

454

1480

Mauritania

 

 

 

 

1

 

 

Mozambique

 

 

 

396

946

 

 

Niger

2908

13449

3757

1051

4465

1404

4081

Nigeria

4983

56128

6835

2764

5731

657

659

Rwanda

 

 

 

35

116

 

 

Senegal

 

 

 

77

70

 

 

Seychelles

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

Sierra Leone

 

 

 

1

8

 

 

Sudan

2240

 

420

13879

6487

3703

1133

Togo

460

350

413

723

578

333

305

Uganda

 

 

400

3561

728

 

 

United Republic of Tanzania

 

 

 

44

533

 

 

Zambia

 

 

 

57

 

 

 

Source: WHO-2012 report
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