Introduction to Reproductive System

The male and female reproductive systems of human beings are unique in their own way. The male reproductive system consists of a pair of testes, ducts, accessory glands and a penis that produces and transmits sperms to the female. The female reproductive system consists of two ovaries (produce ova and secrete hormones), Fallopian tubes, uterus (muscular organ that develops the fetus during its 40-week gestation period), vagina and external genitalia.

The functions of the female reproductive system are to produce egg cells or ova, receive sperms, provide suitable environment for fusion (fertilization) of the egg and the sperm, child birth and finally, nourishment of the baby with breast milk until the baby is ready to take a mixed diet.

The reproductive system of the humans helps in the transfer of their unique characteristics through their genes.

Interesting Facts on Reproductive System
  1. A female can give birth to about 35 babies in a lifetime.

  2. Both the male and female reproductive systems have the ability to produce the smallest (sperm) and the largest (ovum) cells in the human body.

    The sperm and the ovum are about 0.03 to 0.05 mm in length and 120mm in diameter, respectively.
  3. A healthy male testes can produce around 500 million sperm cells daily and can also release up to 75 to 200 million sperms during an ejaculation.

  4. Female ovaries contain about 1-2 million eggs at birth, but only 300,000 ovaries make it to puberty.

  5. The lifespan of an ova is 12-24 hours after it is released from the ovary, while a sperm can live up to 36 hours.

  6. The process of sperm production (spermatogenesis) requires an optimal temperature of 2-3ļC lower than the normal human body temperature and this is why scrotum, which contains testicles, is present outside body.

  7. Zygote is a single-cell entity, which is formed by a fusion of both the sperm and the egg.

  8. Androgens are the hormones that are responsible for the deep voice, body hair, height and muscles in men.

  9. Alcohol, smoking and drug abuse can have a negative impact on an individualís sexual performance, while exercise and healthy diet can improve it.

  10. Fertilization is highly possible when the female is at the middle of her menstrual cycle. This is when the hormones promoting pregnancy are at their peak.

  11. A female uterus is normally about 3 inches long and 2 inches wide, which can expand up to 20 times during pregnancy. Uterus contains one of the strongest muscles of female body.

  12. Fallopian tubes are about 12 cm long and wide as a sewing needle.

  13. Vagina hosts many guarding bacteria that protect the female reproductive organs from external infections. These bacteria reside in a slightly acidic environment lowering the pH of vagina.

  14. At the 8th week of pregnancy, vital organs like brain, heart, skin and stomach are all developed with the embryo measuring only an adultís thumb. Health of the fetus and its development is affected by the motherís oral health.

  15. When in womb the body of the baby is covered by thin layer of hair that disappears when the baby is born.

  16. References
    1. Anatomy of the Reproductive System - (

    2. Interesting Body Facts About Reproductive System - (

    3. Male Reproductive System - (

    4. Female Reproductivity System - (

    5. Reproductivity System - (

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