Using Endocrine Society guidelines, 21 percent of patients were vitamin D deficient (25(OH)D < 20 ng/ml) and 49 percent had vitamin D insufficiency (25(OH)D: 21 - 29 ng/ml).
There was a dramatic difference in incidence rates of vitamin D deficiency between
those treated surgically (50 percent) compared to those in the non-operative group (17 percent).
Being vitamin D deficient was also associated with a greater risk of needing operative management (28.6 percent versus 7.6 percent non-operative).
overweight/obese and nonwhite increased the likelihood of vitamin D deficiency.
Seventy-five percent of children in the operative group were obese or overweight, compared to only 32 percent of children in the non-operative group.
Patients requiring operative management were older than 10 years of age and had greater BMI than patients not requiring surgery.