Physiology or Medicine
Hans Clevers, Professor in Molecular Genetics at the UMC Utrecht and Utrecht University, the Netherlands; Principal Investigator at the Hubrecht Institute (KNAW) and the Princess Maxima Centre for Pediatric Oncology and Oncode Investigator.
For research on the Wnt signaling pathway and its role in stem cells and cancer, providing a new context for drug testing using neither cell lines nor experimental animals.
John W. Kappler, Distinguished Professor, Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, United States, and Philippa Marrack, Distinguished Professor, Department of Biomedical Research, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, United States.
For their discovery of T-cell tolerance by clonal elimination in the thymus. Their research has advanced understanding of the mechanisms of auto-immune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Ernst Bamberg, Director Emeritus, Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Frankfurt am Main, Germany,
Karl Deisseroth, Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and D. H. Chen Professor of Bioengineering and of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, and
Gero MiesenbÖck, Waynflete Professor of Physiology and Director of the Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
For contributions to the invention and development of optogenetics. The technology constitutes a revolution in neuroscience that has already enhanced our knowledge of Parkinson's disease, vision restoration, addiction, and mood disorders.
Artur K. Ekert, Professor of Quantum Physics, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, UK, and Lee Kong Chian Centennial Professor, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
For contributions to quantum computation and quantum cryptography. Recognized for fundamental research that unites theoretical and experimental physics with computer and information science. He is the inventor of entanglement-based quantum cryptography.
Tony F. Heinz, Professor of Applied Physics and Photon Science, Stanford University, and Associate Laboratory Director for Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, CA, United States.
For pioneering research on optical and electronic properties of two-dimensional nanomaterials. We recognize Heinz for contributions to understanding classes of nanoscale materials including carbon nanotubes, graphene, and two-dimensional semiconductors such as molybdenum disulfide.
John P. Perdew, Laura H. Carnell Professor of Physics and Chemistry, Department of Physics, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.
For advances in density functional theory of electronic structure, revealing 'nature's glue'. For contributions to more thorough understanding of the nature and behavior of materials. Density functional theory provides electronic structure calculations in condensed matter physics and quantum chemistry and predicts, for example, the energy of atomic bonds.
Rolf Huisgen, Emeritus Professor of Chemistry, University of Munich, Germany and
Morten P. Meldal, Professor of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
For development of the 1,3-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction (Huisgen reaction) and the variant Copper(I)-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (Meldal). We recognize this pair of scientists for essential contributions to synthetic organic +chemistry. The reactions are modular, allowing for combinations of small units to create a wide variety of new and useful compounds.
Edwin M. Southern, Emeritus Professor of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
For invention of the Southern blot method for determining specific DNA sequences. We recognize Southern for his powerful method to identify a single gene in DNA. His invention was the beginning of genetic mapping, diagnosis, and screening, and is the basis of today's personalized medicine.
Marvin H. Caruthers, Distinguished Professor, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, United States,
Leroy E. Hood, Senior Vice President and Chief Science Officer, Providence St. Joseph Health, Renton, WA, United States, and Chief Strategy Officer, Co-founder and Professor, Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, WA, United States, and Michael W. Hunkapiller, Chief Executive Officer and President, Pacific Biosciences of California, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, United States.
For contributions to protein and DNA sequencing and synthesis. We recognize this trio of research pioneers who, separately and together, created tools that accelerated advances in biology and medicine. Without their inventions, which appeared in the 1980s, there would be no map of the Human Genome.
W. Brian Arthur, External Professor, Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico; Fellow, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, Stanford; and Visiting Researcher, System Sciences Lab, PARC, Palo Alto, California, United States.
For research exploring the consequences of increasing returns (or network effects) in economic systems. We recognize Arthur for describing how small events and positive feedback loops act over time to lock an economy into the domination of one player out of several possible. Arthur has also combined the new science of complexity research with economics to show how an economy functions when its players face ill-defined problems and an ever-changing system, and are unable to act with perfect rationality.
Søren Johansen, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, and
Katarina Juselius, Professor Emerita, Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
For contributions to econometrics and cointegration analysis.
For developing the cointegrated VAR (vector autoregressive) method, which provides a flexible framework to study short- and long-term effects in economic time-series data. The method helps economists avoid confirmation bias in their analyses.
Ariel Rubinstein, Professor, School of Economics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel, and Professor, Department of Economics, New York University, New York, United States.
For development of formal theoretical economic models and especially models of bounded rationality, including his model of bargaining, which has had profound influence in Economics.