NEW YORK, Aug. 5, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- ANTONIN BUKOVSKY, MD, PhD an Obstetrics and Gynaecology specialist along with collaborator wrote and published "Former Effective Immunotherapy without adverse events of Inoperable Epithelial Ovarian Cancers and a Prospect for the Immune Prophylaxis" on recent cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades
Research has shown that immune-related adverse occurrences ranged from mild to lethal. It was seen that these were found to accompany immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors, however, the underlying causes were still unknown. Review of 22 clinical trials (1265 cases) found that the overall incidence of adverse events was 72% and it resulted in the death of 0.86% (11 cases) of the checkpoint blockade treated patients. Inflammation of gastrointestinal tract, skin lesions (rash, pruritu, and vitiligo), hepatitis, thyroiditis, uveitis, sarcoidosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, immune-mediated cytopenia, and polymyalgia were some adverse events. The adverse events also have the potential to alter the quality of life, which can be caused by common cancer chemotherapy-nausea, vomiting, constipation, hair loss, etc.
According to the National Cancer Institute, immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps an individual's immune system to fight cancer. An immune system aids the body in fighting infections and other diseases. It is primarily made up of mononuclear white blood cells and organs and tissues present in the lymphoid system. Cancer immunotherapy is a kind of biological therapy i.e., it is a treatment, which uses substances stimulating immune system reactivity against the cancer cells.
A prime reason why cancer cells that are expressing allogeneic antigens can thrive is because of their ability to hide from the immune system by utilizing the mammalian ability to support allogeneic embryo implantation and fetal growth. However, with the use of some immunotherapies, it becomes easy to identify cancer cells. This further assists the immune system to find and destroy them. Certain other immunotherapies also boost the immune system to work better against cancer.
On examining the data, it was found that the survival of women with epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs) has remained unsatisfactory for the last several decades. It was also that present cancer treatments by immune checkpoint blockades were limited. The common cancer chemotherapy with platinum-based treatment eventually led to neurotoxicity with chronic debilitation. The survival rate of patients suffering from EOCs was low. It showed poor improvement despite high dose chemotherapy, extensive cytoreductive surgery, checkpoint blockades, etc. All this triggered Bukovsky to question and study this particular aspect of cancer.
He realized that novel therapies without adverse events and prevention of cancer relapses were needed to improve treatment and long-lasting survival of patients with EOCs. Bukovsky has tried to explain effective cancer immunotherapy without adverse events. For this, he has felt the need to comprehend detailed information of the immune system niche involvement in the homeostasis of all body normal tissues and the host immune niche support of cancer growth in vivo.
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SOURCE Antonin Bukovsky, MD, PhD
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