Polio (poliomyelitis) is an incurable disease caused by infection from polio virus. The infections can lead to inflammation of nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord, resulting in muscle paralysis. Polio virus can affect anyone, but children under five years old are more prone.
About 95 % of infected people do not develop any symptoms, only 4 to 5 % of individuals will be develop flu-like symptoms. Polio virus mainly spreads in areas with poor hygiene and sanitation.
Polio is transmitted by direct person-to-person contact through the fecal-oral route. The virus enters the body through the mouth or nose and multiplies in the intestines.
The disease can cause paralysis and for some, if they get recover the effect of polio may not completely disappear -they can suffer from muscle pain or paralysis later.
There is no treatment for polio; it can only be prevented. Maintaining a high level of polio immunization is the most effective preventive measures. There are two types of vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV).
Four doses of IPV is routinely given to children until the age 5. IPV may sometimes cause allergic reactions people because of the trace amounts of antibiotics streptomycin, polymyxin B, and neomycin.
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